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Cuisines of the World

Global cuisines may vary based upon food availability and trade, various climates and ecosystems, cooking traditions and practices, and cultural differences. Regional food preparation traditions, customs and ingredients often coalesce to create dishes unique to a particular region, and regional cuisines are often named after the geographic areas or regions they originate from.

There have been significant improvements during the last century in food preservation, storage, shipping and production, and today most countries, cities and regions have access to their traditional cuisines and many other global cuisines. New cuisines continue to evolve in contemporary times. For example, fusion cuisine combines elements of various culinary traditions while not being categorised per any one cuisine style, and can pertain to innovations in many contemporary cuisines.

Note: This article is organised by continent — there may be some link overlap due to varying conventions and models of continental definition.
Africa North Africa Horn of Africa East Africa Central Africa Southern Africa West AfricaAsiaCentral AsiaEast AsiaSouth AsiaSoutheast AsiaWest AsianEuropeCentral EuropeEastern EuropeOther EuropeMediterraneanMiddle EastNorth AmericaCaribbeanCentral AmericaSouth AmericaOceania
Refer to African Cuisine African cuisine is a generalised term collectively referring to the cuisines of Africa. The continent of Africa is the second largest landmass on Earth, and is home to hundreds of different cultural and ethnic groups. This diversity is also reflected in the many local culinary traditions in terms of choice of ingredients, style of preparation and cooking techniques.

Traditionally, the various cuisines of Africa use a combination of locally available fruits, cereal grains and vegetables, as well as milk and meat products. In some parts of the continent, the traditional diet features a preponderance of milk, curd and whey products. In much of tropical Africa, however, cow’s milk is rare and cannot be produced locally (owing to various diseases that affect livestock). Depending on the region, there are also sometimes quite significant differences in the eating and drinking habits and proclivities throughout the continent’s many populations: Central Africa, East Africa, the Horn of Africa, North Africa, Southern Africa and West Africa each have their own distinctive dishes, preparation techniques, and consumption mores.

North African Cuisine

Refer to North African Cuisine

In North African cuisine, the most common staple foods are meat, seafood, goat, lamb, beef, dates, almonds, olives, various vegetables and fruit. Because the region is predominantly Muslim, halal meats are usually eaten. The best-known North African/Berber dish abroad is surely couscous.

  • Algerian cuisine – A distinct fusion of Middle Eastern and Mediterranean cuisines.
  • Egyptian cuisine – Consists of the local culinary traditions of Egypt. Egyptian cuisine makes heavy use of legumes and vegetables, as Egypt’s rich Nile Valley and Delta produce large quantities of high-quality crops.
  • Libyan cuisine – Is the cooking traditions, practices, foods and dishes associated with the country of Libya. The cuisine derives much from the culinary traditions of the Mediterranean and North Africa, with an Italian influence, a legacy from the days when Libya was an Italian colony.
  • Mauritanian cuisine – Mauritania food can be described as a combination of rice and fish. Rice is the staple food of the people in Mauritania and dried fish is eaten for both lunch and dinner. Fish balls are generally served on festive occasions in Mauritania. Dates are available in plenty throughout the country and are used extensively in the preparation of vegetarian food along with the dessert items
  • Moroccan cuisine – Extremely diverse, thanks to Morocco’s interaction with other cultures and nations over the centuries. Moroccan cuisine has been subject to Berber, Moorish, Mediterranean, and Arab influences. The cooks in the royal kitchens of Fez, Meknes, Marrakesh, Rabat and Tetouan refined it over the centuries and created the basis for what is known as Moroccan cuisine today.
  • Sudanese cuisine – Sudanese cuisine is varied by region, and greatly affected by the cross-cultural influences upon Sudan throughout history. In addition to the influences of the indigenous African peoples, the cuisine was influenced by Arab traders and settlers during the Ottoman Empire,
  • Tunisian cuisine – The cuisine of Tunisia is a blend of Mediterranean and desert dwellers’ culinary traditions. Its distinctive spicy fieriness comes from neighbouring Mediterranean countries and the many civilisations which have ruled the land now known as Tunisia.
  • Western Saharan Cuisine – The Western Saharan cuisine has several influences, as the population of that area (Sahrawi), in their most part are of Arabic and Berber origin. The Saharawi cuisine is also influenced by Spanish cuisine owing to Spanish colonisation.

Horn of Africa Cuisine

Refer to Horn of Africa cuisine

The Horn of Africa is a peninsula in East Africa that juts hundreds of kilometres into the Arabian Sea and lies along the southern side of the Gulf of Aden. Besides sharing similar geographic features, the countries of the Horn of Africa are, for the most part, linguistically and ethnically linked together. Cuisine in the region involves many cooking techniques and ingredients. The main traditional dishes in Eritrean cuisine are tsebhis (stews) served with injera (flatbread made from teff, wheat, or sorghum), and hilbet (paste made from legumes, mainly lentil, faba beans). Common Ethiopian cuisine consists of various vegetable or meat side dishes and entrées, usually a wat, or thick stew, served atop or scooped with injera, a large sourdough flatbread made of teff flour, the dough of which is fermented for several days before cooking. Somalian cuisine varies from region to region and consists of an exotic mixture of diverse culinary influences. It is a product of Somalia’s rich tradition of trade and commerce. Xalwo or halva is a popular confection served during special occasions such as Eid celebrations or wedding receptions.

  • Djiboutian Cuisine – A fusion of Djibouti’s native traditions, and the area’s long history of trade and social interaction with other regions and cultures. Meals are typically halal
  • Ethiopian Cuisine – Characteristically consists of spicy vegetable and meat dishes, usually in the form of wat (or wot), a thick stew, served atop injera, a large sourdough flatbread, which is about 50 cm in diameter and made out of fermented teff flour. Ethiopians eat with their right hands, using pieces of injera to pick up bites of entrées and side dishes. Utensils are rarely used with Ethiopian cuisine.
  • Eritrean Cuisine – Is a fusion of Eritrea’s native culinary traditions, and the area’s long history of trade and social interchanges with other regions and cultures.
  • Somali Cuisine – Varies from region to region and is a fusion of different Somali culinary traditions. It is the product of Somalia’s tradition of trade and commerce. Some notable Somali delicacies include sabayad, lahoh/canjeelo, xalwo, sambuusa, bariis iskukaris, and odka.

East African Cuisine

Refer to East African Cuisine

East Africa is the eastern region of the African continent, variably defined by geography or geopolitics. In the UN scheme of geographic regions, 19 territories constitute Eastern Africa: This is a vast region with many diverse cuisines.

  • Burundian cuisine – Burundi has a territory full of mountains, savannas and agricultural fields, with forests in the surrounding of rivers and waters. Agriculture is spread on 80% of the country’s surface and it especially includes coffee, tea, corn, beans and manioc.
  • Kenyan Cuisine – There is no singular dish that represents all of Kenya. Different communities have their own native foods. Staples are maize and other cereals depending on the region including millet and sorghum eaten with various meats and vegetables. The foods that are universally eaten in Kenya are ugali, sukuma wiki, and nyama choma. Sukuma wiki, a Swahili phrase which literally means “to push the week,” is a simple dish made with greens similar to kale or collards that can also be made with cassava leaves, sweet potato leaves, or pumpkin leaves. Its Swahili name comes from the fact that it is typically eaten to “get through the week” or “stretch the week.” Nyama choma is grilled meat – usually goat or sheep. It is grilled over an open fire. It is usually eaten with ugali and kachumbari.
  • Rwandan Cuisine – Is based on local staple foods produced by the traditional subsistence-level agriculture and has historically varied between the country’s different ethnic groups.
  • South Sudanese Cuisine – Is based on grains (maize, sorghum). It uses yams, potatoes, vegetables, legumes (beans, lentil, peanuts), meat (goat, mutton, chicken and fish near the rivers and lakes), okra and fruit as well. Meat is boiled, grilled or dried.
  • Tanzanian Cuisine – Is both unique and widely varied. Along the coastal regions (Dar es Salaam, Tanga, Bagamoyo, Zanzibar, and Pemba), spicy foods are common, and there is also much use of coconut milk. Regions in Tanzania’s mainland also have their own unique foods. Some typical mainland Tanzanian foods include rice (wali), ugali (maize porridge), chapati (a kind of bread), nyama choma (grilled meat), mshikaki (marinated beef), fish, pilau, biryani, and ndizi-nyama (plantains with meat). Commonly used vegetables include bamia (okra), mchicha (a kind of spinach), njegere (green peas), maharage (beans), and kisamvu (cassava leaves).
  • Zanzibari Cuisine – Reflects several heterogeneous influences, as a consequence of the multi-cultural and multi-ethnic nature of Zanzibar’s and Swahili heritage. It is a mixture of various culinary traditions, including Bantu, Arab, Portuguese, Indian, British and even Chinese cuisine.
  • Ugandan Cuisine – Consists of traditional and modern cooking styles, practices, foods and dishes in Uganda, with English, Arab, and Asian (especially Indian) influences.

Central African Cuisine

Refer to Central African Cuisine

Can be considered as traditional because of the remote nature of the region, which remained relatively isolated until the 19th century. Some foods, such as cassava (a food staple in Central Africa), groundnuts (peanuts) and chilli peppers were imported from the New World. Plantains are also common in Central African cuisine. Meats, such as crocodile, antelope, monkey and warthog, are sometimes hunted in the forests. Bambra is a porridge made from cooked rice, peanut butter and sugar. A jomba is the bundling of foods in fresh green plantain leaves and then cooking them over hot coals or fire.

  • Angolan cuisine – The cuisine of Angola, a country in south-central Africa. Because Angola was a Portuguese colony for centuries, Portuguese cuisine has significantly influenced Angolan cuisine, with many foods imported into Angola by the Portuguese.
  • Cameroonian cuisine – Is one of the most varied in Africa due to its location on the crossroads between the north, west, and centre of the continent; added to this is the profound influence of French food, a legacy of the colonial era.
  • Centrafrican cuisine – Is the cooking traditions, practices, foods and dishes associated with the Central African Republic. The diet is heavy on staple starches such as millet and sorghum, and utilizes a significant amount of vegetables and sauces.
  • Chadian cuisine – The cooking traditions, practices, foods and dishes associated with the Republic of Chad. Chadians utilise a variety of grains, vegetables, fruits and meats. Commonly consumed grains include millet, sorghum and rice as staple foods.
  • Democratic Republic of the Congo cuisine – This cuisine varies widely, representing the food of indigenous people. Cassava is generally the staple food usually eaten with other side dishes.
  • The Republic of the Congo cuisine – Congolese cuisine is one of the most diversified in Central Africa. Combining a mixture of fresh vegetables, poultry, bush meat and sea food, the cuisine is famous for being nutritious and healthy.
  • Equatorial Guinean cuisine – Is a blend of the cuisines of the native tribes, as well as that of Spain (their colonial motherland) and Islamic states such as Morocco. As the wealthiest nation in west Africa, its cuisine incorporates various meats. These include game and bush-meat as well as imports. Fish and chicken are common dishes.
  • Gabonese cuisine is the cooking traditions, practices, foods and dishes associated with the sovereign state of Gabon. French cuisine is prevalent as a notable influence, and in larger cities various French specialties are available. In rural areas, food staples such as cassava, rice and yams are commonly used.
  • Santomean (São Tomé and Príncipe) Cuisine – Some of the most common recipes for food that can be eaten in São Tomé and Príncipe.

Southern African Cuisine

Refer to Southern African Cuisine

Sometimes referred to as “rainbow cuisine” because it’s based on multicultural and various indigenous cuisines. Curried dishes are popular with lemon juice in Southern Africa among people of all ethnic origins; many dishes came to the country with the thousands of Indian laborers brought to South Africa in the nineteenth century. Southern African cuisine can be defined as cookery practiced by indigenous people of South Africa such as the Khoisan and Xhosa, Zulu- and Sotho-speaking people, and settler cookery that emerged from several waves of immigration introduced during the colonial period by people of Indian and Afrikaner and British descent and their slaves and servants.

  • Botswana Cuisine – Unique but also shares some characteristics with other cuisine of Southern Africa. Examples of Botswana food include Pap, Samp, Vetkoek and Mopane worms. A food unique to Botswana includes seswaa, heavily salted mashed-up meat.
  • Comoros Cuisine – The small country of Comoros is situated in the East part of Africa in the Indian Ocean. Over the years this country territories have been repeatedly invaded by numerous other people and groups like those from the coast of Africa, Indonesia, Madagascar and Persian Golf. Even the Portuguese explorers have visited this country in the early 16th century. All these people left their mark over the Comoros cuisine by bringing with them all kind of ingredients and flavours.
  • Lesothoan Cuisine – Basotho (people of Lesotho) cuisine features African traditions and British influence. Lesotho is surrounded by South Africa and it shares culinary practices with its neighbour.
  • Malagasy Cuisine – Encompasses the many diverse culinary traditions of the Indian Ocean island of Madagascar. Foods eaten in Madagascar reflect the influence of Southeast Asian, African, Indian, Chinese and European migrants that have settled on the island .
  • Cuisine of Malawi – Malawian cuisine includes the foods and culinary practices of Malawi. Tea and fish are popular features of Malawian cuisine. Sugar, coffee, corn, potatoes, sorghum, cattle and goats are also important components of the cuisine and economy.
  • Mauritian cuisine
  • Mozambique cuisine – Present for nearly 500 years, the Portuguese greatly impacted the cuisine of Mozambique. Crops such as cassava (a starchy root) and cashew nuts (Mozambique was once the largest producer of these nuts), and pãozinho (pronounced pow-zing-yo; Portuguese-style bread rolls) were brought in by the Portuguese.
  • Namibian cuisine
  • Seychellois cuisine
  • South African cuisine
  • Swaziland cuisine is largely determined by the seasons and the geographical region. Staple foods in Swaziland include sorghum and maize, often served with goat meat, a very popular livestock there.[35]
  • Zambian cuisine – The Zambian staple diet is based on maize. It is normally eaten as a thick porridge, called Nshima (Nyanja Word), prepared from maize flour commonly known as mealie meal. This may be eaten with a variety of vegetables, beans, meat, fish or sour milk depending on geographical location/origin.
  • Zimbabwean cuisine

West African Cuisine

Refer to West African Cuisine

Refers to many distinct regional and ethnic cuisines in West African nations, a large geographic area with climates ranging from desert to tropical. Some of the region’s indigenous plants, such as hausa groundnuts, pigeon peas and cowpeas provide dietary protein for both people and livestock. Many significant spices, stimulants and medicinal herbs originated in the evergreen and deciduous forests of Western Africa. Ancient Africans domesticated the kola nut and coffee, now used globally in beverages.

  • Benin cuisine – Known in Africa for its and exotic ingredients and flavourful dishes. Beninese cuisine involves lots of fresh meals served with a variety of sauces. Meat is usually quite expensive, and meals are generally light on meat and generous on vegetable fat.
  • Burkinabé cuisine – The cuisine of Burkina Faso. It’s similar to the cuisines in many parts of West Africa, and is based around staple foods of sorghum, millet, rice, maize, peanuts, potatoes, beans, yams and okra. Grilled meat is common, particularly mutton, goat, beef and fish.
  • Cape Verdean cuisine – The Cape Verde diet is mostly based on fish and staple foods like corn and rice. Vegetables available during most of the year are potatoes, onions, tomatoes, manioc, cabbage, kale, and dried beans. Fruits such as banana and papayas are available year-round, while others like mangos and avocados are seasonal.
  • The Cuisine of Niger reflects many traditional African cuisines, and a significant amount of spices are used in dishes. Grilled meats, seasonal vegetables, salads and various sauces are some of the foods consumed.
  • Gambian cuisine
  • Ghanaian cuisine
  • Guinean cuisine
  • Guinea-Bissauan cuisine
  • Ivorian cuisine
  • Liberian cuisine
  • Mali cuisine
  • Nigerian cuisine
  • Senegalese cuisine
  • Sierra Leone cuisine
  • Togolese cuisine is the cuisine of the Togolese Republic, a country in Western Africa. It is often a combination of African, French and German cuisines. The cuisine has many sauces and pâtés, many of which are made from eggplant, tomato, spinach and fish.
Refer to Asian Cuisine

Asia is the world’s largest and most populous continent, covers 29.9% of the Earth’s total land area, has approximately 4 billion people and hosts 60% of the world’s current human population. As such, Asia has numerous cuisines. Asian cuisine styles can be broken down into several regional styles that have roots in the peoples and cultures of those regions. The major types can be roughly defined as East Asian with its origins in Imperial China and now encompassing modern Japan and the Korean peninsula; Southeast Asian which encompasses Cambodia, Laos, Thailand, Vietnam, Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, and the Philippines; South Asian which is made up of India, Burma, India, Sri Lanka and Pakistan as well as several other countries in this region of the continent; Central Asian and Middle Eastern.

Central Asian cuisine

Refer to Central Asian Cuisine
  • Kazakh cuisine – Traditional Kazakh cuisine revolves around mutton and horse meat, as well as various milk products. For hundreds of years Kazakhs were herders who raised fat-tailed sheep, Bactrian camels, and horses, relying on these animals for transportation, clothing, and food.
  • Kyrgyz cuisine – Similar in many respects to that of its neighbours, particularly Kazakh cuisine. Traditional Kyrgyz food includes mutton and horse meat, and milk products. The cooking techniques and major ingredients have been strongly influenced by the nation’s nomadic way of life.
  • Mongolian cuisine – Refers to the local culinary traditions of Mongolia and Mongolian styled dishes. The extreme continental climate has affected the traditional diet, so the Mongolian cuisine primarily consists of dairy products, meat, and animal fats. Use of vegetables and spices is limited.
  • Tajik cuisine – The traditional cuisine of Tajikistan, has much in common with Afghan, Iranian, Russian, and Uzbek cuisines. Plov (pita), also called osh, is the national dish in Tajikistan, as in other countries in the region. It consists of chunks of mutton,carrots and rice fried in a large cast-iron cauldron similar to a Dutch oven. Green tea is the national drink. Traditional Tajik meals start with a spread of dried fruit, nuts, halwa, and other sweets arrayed on the table in small dishes, and then progress to soup and meat, before finishing with plov.
  • Turkmen cuisine – The cuisine of Turkmenistan is similar to that of the rest of Central Asia. Plov is the staple, everyday food, which is also served at celebrations. Turkmenistan is perhaps most famous for its melons, especially in the former Soviet Union, where it was once the major supplier. Meals are almost always served with naan, Central Asian flat bread, known locally as “çörek.”
  • Uzbek cuisine – Is influenced by local agriculture, as in most nations. There is a great deal of grain farming in Uzbekistan, so breads and noodles are of importance, and Uzbek cuisine has been characterised as “noodle-rich”. Mutton is a popular variety of meat due to the abundance of sheep in the country and it is a part of various Uzbek dishes.
Refer to East Asian Cuisine

East Asian Cuisine

has evolved with common usage of oils, fats and sauces in the preparation of dishes.

  • Chinese cuisine – Traditional Chinese cuisines include Anhui, Cantonese, Fujian, Hunan, Jiangsu, Shandong, Sichuan, and Zhejiang, all of which are defined and termed per the respective regions within China where they developed. A number of different styles contribute to Chinese cuisine, but perhaps the best known and most influential are the Sichuan, Shandong, Jiangsu and Guangdong cuisines. These styles are distinctive from one another due to factors such as available resources, climate, geography, history, cooking techniques and lifestyle. Many Chinese traditional regional cuisines rely on basic methods of food preservation such as drying, salting, pickling and fermentation.
    • Chinese cuisine originated in what is known as the Eight Great Traditions, though it can be generalized into northern styles that feature oils and strong flavours derived from ingredients such as vinegar and garlic, while southern styles tend to favour fresh ingredients that are lightly prepared. It has become widespread throughout many other parts of the world — from Asia to the Americas, Australia, Western Europe and Southern Africa. In recent years, connoisseurs of Chinese cuisine have also sprouted in Eastern Europe and South Asia. American Chinese cuisine and Canadian Chinese food are popular examples of local varieties. Local ingredients would be adopted while maintaining the style and preparation technique.
    • Great Traditions
      • Eight Great Traditions – Regional cultural differences vary greatly amongst the different regions of China, giving rise to eight main regional cuisines, or Eight Great Traditions (八大菜系, Bā Dà Cài Xì)
        1. Anhui is derived from the native cooking styles of the Huangshan Mountains region in China and is similar to Jiangsu cuisine. It is known for the use of wild herbs, from both land and sea, and simple methods of preparation.
        2. Cantonese comes from Guangdong Province in southern China. Due to Guangdong’s location on the southern coast of China, fresh live seafood is prominent in Cantonese cuisine. Canton has long been a trading port and many imported foods and ingredients are used in Cantonese cuisine. Char siu is a popular way to flavour and prepare pork in Cantonese cuisine.
        3. Fujian is one of the native Chinese cuisines derived from the native cooking style of the province of Fujian, China. Many diverse seafoods and woodland delicacies are used, including a myriad of fish, shellfish and turtles, along with edible mushrooms and bamboo shoots, provided by the coastal and mountainous regions of Fujian.
        4. Hunan, sometimes called Xiang cuisine, consists of the cuisines of the Xiang River region, Dongting Lake and western Hunan Province, in China. The cuisine is well known for its hot spicy flavour, fresh aroma and deep colour. Common cooking techniques include stewing, frying, pot-roasting, braising, and smoking. Due to the high agricultural output of the region, ingredients for Hunan dishes are many and varied.
        5. Jiangsu is derived from the native cooking styles of the Jiangsu region in China. Food texture is often soft, but not to the point of mushy or falling apart. Other characters include the strict selection of ingredients according to the seasons, emphasis on the matching colour and shape of each dish and emphasis on using soup to improve the flavour.
        6. Shandong in Chinese is more commonly known as Lu cuisine, and is derived from the native cooking styles of Shandong, an eastern coastal province of China. Possibly Shandong’s greatest contribution to Chinese cuisine has been in the area of brewing vinegar. Hundreds of years of experience combined with unique local methods have led to Shandong’s prominence as one of the premier regions for vinegar production in China.
        7. Sichuan is a style of Chinese cuisine originating in the Sichuan Province of southwestern China famed for bold flavours, particularly the pungency and spiciness resulting from liberal use of garlic and chilli peppers, as well as the unique flavour of the Sichuan peppercorn (花椒). Peanuts, sesame paste, and ginger are also prominent ingredients in Sichuan cooking.
        8. Zhejiang is derived from the native cooking styles of the Zhejiang region in China. Food made in the Zhejiang style is not greasy, having instead a fresh and soft flavour with a mellow fragrance.
        • Four Great Traditions – often considered the standouts of Chinese cuisine and due to their influence are proclaimed as the Four Great Traditions (四大菜系, Sì Dà Cài Xì).
          1. Cantonese
          2. Sichuan
          3. Shandong
          4. Huaiyang cuisine – often viewed as the representation of the entire Jiangsu cuisine.
      • Chinese cultural subcuisines
        • Chinese Buddhist cuisine
        • Chinese Islamic cuisine
      • Chinese cuisines, by region
        • Anhui cuisine
        • Beijing cuisine
          • Chinese aristocrat cuisine
          • Chinese imperial cuisine
          • Liaoning cuisine
        • Cantonese cuisine
        • Chaozhou cuisine
        • Chiuchow cuisine
        • Fujian cuisine
        • Guizhou cuisine
        • Hainan cuisine
        • Hakka cuisine
        • Henan cuisine
        • Hubei cuisine
        • Hunan cuisine
        • Jiangsu cuisine
          • Huaiyang cuisine
        • Jiangxi cuisine
        • Northeastern Chinese cuisine
        • Shaanxi cuisine
        • Shandong cuisine
        • Shanghai cuisine
        • Shanxi cuisine
        • Sichuan cuisine (Sichuan)
        • Tianjin cuisine
        • Tibetan cuisine
        • Xinjiang cuisine (Uyghur)
        • Yunnan cuisine
        • Zhejiang cuisine
  • Hong Kong cuisine is mainly influenced by Cantonese cuisine, non-Cantonese Chinese cuisine (especially Teochew, Hakka, Hokkien and the Jiangsu & Zhejiang), the Western world, Japan, and Southeast Asia, due to Hong Kong’s past as a British colony and long history of being an international city of commerce. Fish balls, wonton noodle, egg waffle, and milk tea are some of the most notable dishes, snacks, and drinks.
  • Macau cuisine
  • Japanese cuisine is known for its emphasis on seasonality of food (旬, shun), quality of ingredients and presentation. Japanese regional cuisine includes a vast array of regional specialities known as kyōdo ryōri in Japanese, many of them originating from dishes prepared using local ingredients and traditional recipes. Sushi and sashimi are both part of the cuisine of the island nation. The Michelin Guide has awarded Japanese cities by far the most Michelin stars of any country in the world (for example, Tokyo alone has more Michelin stars than Paris, Hong Kong, New York, LA and London combined).
    • Traditional cooking methods eschew the use of oils and fats, with a focus on featuring the delicate flavours of the natural ingredients. Due to an abundant seafood supply, the traditional Japanese diet featured minimal use of meat; however, modern Japanese cuisine includes an extensive variety of popular meat dishes. Japanese cuisine offers a vast array of regional specialties that use traditional recipes and local ingredients.
    • Okinawan cuisine is the cuisine of the Japanese island of Okinawa. Due to the difference in culture, climate, vegetables and other ingredients between Okinawa and mainland Japan, Okinawan cuisine is very different from Japanese cuisine. The cuisine incorporated influence from Chinese cuisine and Southeast Asian cuisine due to trade. The sweet potato, introduced in Okinawa in 1605, became a staple food there until the beginning of the 20th century. An article about Okinawan food written by Kikkoman stated that Goya (bitter melon) and Nabera (luffa or towel gourd) were “likely” introduced to Okinawa from Southeast Asia. Since Ryūkyū had served as a tributary state to China, Okinawan cooks traveled to Fujian Province to learn how to cook Chinese food; Chinese influence seeped into Okinawa in that manner. The same Kikkoman article states that the method of distillation of awamori likely originated from Siam (Thailand) and traveled to Okinawa during the 15th century. After the lord of the Kagoshima Domain subjugated Ryūkyū, Okinawan cooks traveled to Japan to study Japanese cuisine, causing that influence to seep into Okinawan cuisine.
    • Ainu cuisine
  • Korean cuisine originated from ancient prehistoric traditions in the Korean peninsula, evolving through a complex interaction of environmental, political, and cultural trends. Korean cuisine is largely based upon rice, vegetables, and meats. Traditional Korean meals are noted for the number of side dishes (banchan) that accompany steam-cooked short-grain rice. Kimchi is served often, sometimes at every meal. Commonly used ingredients include sesame oil, doenjang (fermented bean paste), soy sauce, salt, garlic, ginger, pepper flakes, and gochujang (fermented red chilli paste). Korean regional cuisine (Korean: hyangto eumsik, literally “native local foods”), is characterised by local specialties and distinctive styles within Korean cuisine. The divisions reflected historical boundaries of the provinces where these food and culinary traditions were preserved until modern times. Korean barbecue, or gogi gui, refers to the Korean method of grilling beef, pork, chicken, or other types of meat. Such dishes are often prepared at the diner’s table on gas or charcoal grills that are built into the centre of the table itself. It features cooking methods such as sautéing and what is known in the West as barbecue. Strong flavours featuring spices derived from chilli peppers can also be found in dishes such as kimchi.
  • Mongolian cuisine – local culinary traditions of Mongolia and Mongolian styled dishes. The extreme continental climate has affected the traditional diet, so the Mongolian cuisine primarily consists of dairy products, meat, and animal fats. Use of vegetables and spices are limited.
  • Singaporean cuisine – highly influenced by Chinese cuisine from Fujian, Guangdong and Hainan as well as Japanese cuisine. The indigenous Austronesian Malay cuisine is also present.
  • Taiwanese cuisine – Majority Han Taiwanese cuisine and the Aboriginal Taiwanese cuisine, however mixed with part of Japanese cuisine.
South Asian cuisine includes the cuisines from the Indian subcontinent and when included in the definition, also that of Afghanistan. It has roots in South Asia, including practices taken from the Hindu beliefs practiced by the large population found in the region, alongside in some regional cuisines, certain influences from neighbouring regions and cultures, particularly from Muslim cultures of the Middle East and Central Asia. Dishes in this area of the world are known for their use of hot peppers, black pepper, cloves, and other strong spices along with the flavoured butter ghee. Common meats include lamb, goat and chicken; beef is not as common as in western cuisines because the tenets of the Hindu faith prohibit its consumption. Other staples of many of the cuisines include rice, chapati made from wheat and barley, and beans. The cuisine of South Asia has mostly indigenous roots , as well as influences practices taken from foreign origin empires.

Naan, a type of flat bread from the former regions, is a common part of meals in many parts of South Asia.

  • Afghan cuisine – cuisine of the Afghan people, largely based upon Afghanistan’s chief crops: cereals like wheat, maize, barley and rice. Accompanying these staples are dairy products (yoghurt and wheat), various nuts, and native vegetables, as well as fresh and dried fruits. Lamb is the primary meat for many Afghans, although Turkic peoples also eat horse. Afghanistan is also well known for its grapes.
  • Bangladeshi cuisine is dominated by Bengali cuisine and has been shaped by the diverse history and riverine geography of Bangladesh. The country has a tropical monsoon climate. Rice is the main staple food of Bangladeshi people and it is served with a wide range of curries. Sublime Bangladeshi dishes exhibit strong aromatic flavours; and often include eggs, potatoes, tomatoes and eggplant (aubergines). A variety of spices and herbs, along with mustard oil and ghee, is used in Bangladeshi cooking. The main breads are naan, porota, roti, bakarkhani and luchi. Dal is the second most important staple food which is served with rice/porota/luchi. Fish is a staple in Bangladeshi cuisine, especially freshwater fish, which is a distinctive feature of the country’s gastronomy. Major fish dishes include ilish (hilsa), pabda (butterfish), rui (rohu), pangash (pangas catfish), chitol (clown knifefish), magur (walking catfish), bhetki (barramundi) and tilapia. Meat consumption includes beef, lamb, venison, chicken, duck, squab and koel. Vegetable dishes, either mashed (bhorta), boiled (sabji), or leaf-based (saag), are widely served. Seafood such as lobsters and shrimps are also often prevalent.
  • Bhutanese cuisine employs a lot of red rice (like brown rice in texture, but with a nutty taste, the only variety of rice that grows at high altitudes), buckwheat, and increasingly maize. The diet in the hills also includes chicken, yak meat, dried beef, pork, pork fat, and mutton. When offered food, one says meshu meshu, covering one’s mouth with the hands in refusal according to Bhutanese manners, and then gives in on the second or third offer.
  • Indian cuisine is characterised by its sophisticated and subtle use of many Indian spices and vegetables, herbs, and fruits grown across India. There is also the widespread practice of vegetarianism across its society. Considered by some to be one of the world’s most diverse cuisines, each family of this cuisine is characterized by a wide assortment of dishes and cooking techniques. As a consequence, Indian cuisine varies from region to region, reflecting the varied demographics of the ethnically diverse Indian subcontinent. India’s religious beliefs and culture has played an influential role in the evolution of its cuisine. However, cuisine across India has also evolved with the Indian subcontinent’s cross-cultural interactions with the neighbouring Middle East, Southeast Asia, East Asia, and Central Asia, making it a unique blend of various cuisines across Asia. The colonial period introduced European cooking styles to India adding to its flexibility and diversity. Indian cuisine has also influenced cuisines across the world, especially those from Southeast Asia. In particular, curry has been widely adopted in cuisines around the world.
    • North Indian cuisines
        • Awadhi cuisine
        • Punjabi cuisine
        • Cuisine of Uttar Pradesh
        • Rajasthani cuisine
        • Mughlai cuisine
        • Bhojpuri cuisine
        • Bihari cuisine
        • Kashmiri cuisine
      • South Indian cuisines
        • Kerala cuisine – Sadhya means “banquet” in Malayalam. It is a typical feast of the people of Kerala.
        • Tamil cuisine
        • Andhra cuisine
        • Cuisine of Karnataka
        • Telangana – Hyderabadi cuisine
      • East Indian cuisines
        • Bengali cuisine is a style of food preparation originating in Bengal, a region in eastern South Asia which is now divided between the Indian states of West Bengal, Tripura, and Barak Valley of Assam and the independent country of Bangladesh. Bengali food has inherited a large number of influences, both foreign and South Asian, arising from historical and strong trade links with many parts of the world.
        • Cuisine of Jharkhand
        • Oriya cuisine
      • North East Indian cuisines
        • Sikkimese cuisine
        • Assamese cuisine
        • Tripuri cuisine
        • Naga cuisine
      • West Indian cuisines
        • Maharashtrian cuisine
          • Malvani cuisine
          • East Indian Cuisine (East Indians are an ethnic group from Bombay in the West of India) The East Indian cuisine is distinct to the community and includes delicacies such as the vajri curry or goat tripe curry, chicken tope, sorpotel, khudi curries and many more.
        • Goan cuisine
        • Parsi cuisine
        • Gujarati cuisine
        • Rajasthani cuisine
      • Other Indian cuisines
        • Indian Chinese cuisine
        • Jain (Satvika)
        • Sindhi cuisine
        • Chettinad cuisine
        • Udupi cuisine
        • Indian fast food
  • Maldivian cuisine
  • Nepalese cuisine
    • Newari cuisine
  • Pakistani cuisine
    • Balochi cuisine
    • Kashmiri cuisine
    • Pashtun cuisine
    • Muhajir cuisine
    • Punjabi cuisine
    • Lahori cuisine
    • Mughlai cuisine
    • Sindhi cuisine
  • Sri Lankan cuisine
Southeast Asian cuisine emphasizes lightly prepared dishes with strong aromas, featuring such flavours as citrus, mint, coriander (also known as Chinese parsley), and basil. Ingredients in the region contrast with the ones in the Eastern Asian cuisines, substituting fish sauces for soy sauce and including such ingredients as galangal, tamarind and lemongrass. Cooking methods include stir frying, boiling and steaming.

  • Bruneian cuisine is similar to, and heavily influenced by, the cuisine of neighbouring Malaysia, Singapore, and Indonesia, with additional influences from China, India and Arab.
  • Burmese cuisine has been influenced greatly by China, India and Thailand. However, Burmese cuisine has retained unique preparation techniques and distinct flavours, and there are many regional variations of “standard” dishes. The Burmese eat with their right hand, forming rice into a small ball with only the fingertips and mixing this with various morsels before popping it into their mouths. The Burmese eat a great variety of vegetables and fruits, and all kinds of meat. A very popular vegetable is the danyin thi, which is usually boiled or roasted and dipped in salt, oil and sometimes, cooked coconut fat.
  • Cambodian cuisine is another name for the foods and cuisine widely consumed in Cambodia. The food of Cambodia includes tropical fruits, rice, noodles, drinks, dessert and various soups.
  • Cuisine of East Timor is the cuisine of one of the newest Southeast Asian countries.
  • Filipino cuisine has evolved over several centuries from its Austronesian origins to a mixed cuisine with many Hispanic, Chinese, American, and other Asian influences adapted to indigenous ingredients and the local palate. For more information refer to: Filipino cuisine; regional specialties.
    • Kapampangan cuisine is the cuisine native to the Kapampangan people originating from the province of Pampanga, in Central Luzon. One of the best examples of Kapampangan dish is sisig, which is a popular dish across the Philippines.
  • Indonesian cuisine is diverse, in part because Indonesia is composed of approximately 6,000 populated islands. Many regional cuisines exist, often based upon cultural and foreign influences. For example, Sumatran cuisine often has Middle Eastern and Indian influences, featuring curried meat and vegetables, while Javanese cuisine and Sundanese cuisine are more indigenous.
    • Acehnese cuisine is the cuisine of the Acehnese people of Aceh in most western Sumatra.
    • Balinese cuisine is the cuisine and culinary traditions of Balinese people from the volcanic island of Bali.
    • Batak cuisine is the cuisine and cooking traditions of Batak ethnic groups, predominantly found in North Sumatra region.
    • Indonesian Arab cuisine is characterised by the mixture of Middle Eastern cuisine with local Indonesian style. Indonesian Arabs brought their legacy of Arab cuisine originally from Hadhramaut, Hejaz and Egypt.
    • Indonesian Chinese cuisine is characterised by the mixture of Chinese with local Indonesian style. Chinese Indonesians bring their Chinese cuisine legacy.
    • Indonesian Indian cuisine is characterised by the mixture of Indian cuisine with local Indonesian style. Indian Indonesians bring their Chinese cuisine legacy.
    • Javanese cuisine is the cuisine of Javanese people. In wider sense, Javanese cuisine might also refer to the cuisine of the whole people of Java Island, Indonesia; which also includes Sundanese in West Java, Betawi in Jakarta and Madurese on Madura Island off East Java.
      • Betawi cuisine is rich, diverse and eclectic cuisine of Betawi people in Jakarta due to the Betawi people that create them were composed from numbers of regional immigrants that came from various places in the archipelago.
      • Madurese cuisine is the cuisine tradition of Madurese people in Madura island on the northeastern coast of Java.
      • Sundanese cuisine is the cuisine of Sundanese people of West Java, Indonesia. In Sundanese restaurants, it is common to eat with one’s hands. They usually serve kobokan, a bowl of tap water with a slice of lime for handwashing.
    • Makassar cuisine is the cuisine of the Buginese people and Makassar people in South Sulawesi.
    • Malay cuisine is the cuisine of Malay people with many regional and foreign influences.
    • Manado cuisine is the cooking tradition of the Minahasan people of North Sulawesi. This cuisine has influences by Eurasian cuisine, especially Dutch cuisine.
    • Padang food, also known as Minangkabau cuisine, is the cuisine of the Minangkabau people of West Sumatra, Indonesia. It is among the most popular food in Maritime Southeast Asia. It is known across Indonesia as masakan Padang.
    • Palembang cuisine is the cuisine of the Palembang people in South Sumatra.
    • Peranakan cuisine combines Chinese, Malay, Javanese and other influences into a unique blend.
  • Laotian cuisine is the cuisine of Laos, which is distinct from other Southeast Asian cuisines. Laos shares borders with neighbouring countries and as a result, Lao cuisine has strongly influenced the neighbouring cuisine of Northeastern Thailand (Isan) and some Lao culinary influences have also reached Cambodia and Northern Thailand (Lanna).
  • Malaysian cuisine reflects the multicultural aspects of Malaysia. Malaysia is an amalgamation of three major races, Malay, Chinese and Indian, as well as a myriad of ethnic groups from Sabah and Sarawak. The potpourri is enriched further with the influence of the Thai from the north, Indonesian from the south, Filipino from the east, and British, Dutch and Portuguese through hundred years of colonization.
    • Malay cuisine is the cuisine of Malay people with many regional and foreign influences. For examples, cuisine of Johor often has Middle Eastern and Javanese influences while cuisine of Kelantan often has Thai influences.
    • Malaysian Chinese cuisine is characterised by the mixture of Chinese with local ingredients.
    • Malaysian Indian cuisine is characterised by the mixture of Indian with local ingredients.
    • Sarawakian cuisine is the cuisine of Sarawak, Malaysia
    • Sabahan cuisine is the cuisine of Sabah, Malaysia with influences from Filipino cuisine and Indonesian cuisine
    • Peranakan cuisine combines Chinese, Malay and other influences into a unique blend. Peranakan in Penang often has Thai influences while Melaka and Singapore often has Indonesian influences.
    • Eurasian cuisine combines Kristang, Dutch, British,Malay and other influences into a unique blend, predominantly found in Melaka
  • Singaporean cuisine is similar to, and heavily influenced by the cuisine of neighbouring Malaysia, as a product of centuries of cultural interaction owing to Singapore’s strategic location. the predominant Chinese, Indonesian, Indian and Western traditions (particularly English) since the founding of Singapore by the British in the 19th century.
  • Thai cuisine can be described as four regional cuisines corresponding to the four main regions of the country: Northern, Northeastern (or Isan), Central, and Southern. A fifth cuisine is Thai cuisine, based on the palace cuisine of the Ayutthaya kingdom (1351–1767 CE), which was influential upon the cuisine of the Central Thai plains. Each cuisine has similarities to foods and cuisines in neighbouring countries and regions, including the Cuisine of Burma, Yunnan cuisine, Lao cuisine, Cambodian cuisine and Malaysian cuisine.
  • Vietnamese cuisine is a style of cooking derived from Vietnam with Chinese influence. Fish sauce, soy sauce, rice, fresh herbs, fruits and vegetables are commonly used. Vietnamese recipes utilize a diverse range of herbs, including lemongrass, mint, Vietnamese mint, long coriander and Thai basil leaves.
West Asian cuisine, is the cuisine of the various countries and peoples of West Asia. Despite their similarities, there are considerable differences in climate and culture, so the term is not definitive. The cuisine of the region is diverse while having a degree of homogeneity. Many West Asian dishes are made with a paste called tahini. Tahini is a sesame paste made with hulled seeds, unlike its East Asian counterpart. It is used to make such popular meze, or appetizers, as baba ghanoush and hummus along with pungent dipping sauces served with falafel, keftes or kofta and vegetables. Hummus is made from chickpeas, which are staples of the diet. Some commonly used ingredients include olives and olive oil, lamb, pitas, honey, sesame seeds, dates, sumac, chickpeas, mint and parsley. Some popular dishes include kibbeh and shawarma.

  • Arab cuisine of the Persian Gulf – Arab cuisine of the Persian Gulf today is the result of combination of diverse cuisines, incorporating Levantine, Indian, Chinese, and Persian cooking styles, and many items not originally indigenous to the Persian Gulf region, which were most probably imported on the dhows and the caravans.
  • Assyrian cuisine
  • Bahraini cuisine refers to the cuisine of The Kingdom of Bahrain, a small island state near the western shores of the Persian Gulf. Bahrain produces only a small amount of its food requirements due to limited land space, and imports much of its food. Its primary crops are dates, bananas, citrus fruits, pomegranates, mangoes, cucumbers and tomatoes.
  • Cypriot cuisine
  • Emirati cuisine
  • Iranian cuisine – Persian cuisine is diverse, with each province featuring dishes, culinary traditions and styles distinct to its region.
    • Abgoosht is an Iranian stew usually made with lamb and vegetables
    • Mazanderani cuisine
  • Iraqi cuisine or Mesopotamian cuisine, has a long history going back some 10,000 years – to the Sumerians, Babylonians and Assyrians. Tablets found in ancient ruins in Iraq show recipes prepared in the temples during religious festivals – the first cookbooks in the world.
    • Kurdish cuisine consists of a wide variety of foods prepared by the Kurdish people that have got many traditions from their homeland, Kurdistan.
  • Kuwaiti cuisine – the national dish of Kuwait known as machboos (Arabic: مكبوس‎) consists mainly of mutton or chicken placed over or mixed in a large mass of well-cooked and prepared rice.
  • Omani cuisine is generally very simple, with the aid of many spices and marinades to complete a dish, which usually consists of chicken, fish, and mutton. Unlike many other Asian nations, Omani cuisine is not spicy, and varies between regions.
  • Qatari cuisine
  • Saudi Arabian cuisine – Food staples include lamb, grilled chicken, falafel (deep-fried chickpea balls), shawarma (spit-cooked sliced lamb), mutabbaq and Ful medames. Arabic unleavened bread, or khobz (خبز), is eaten with almost all meals, and is often used as an edible utensil to scoop foods.
    • Kabsa is considered by many as Saudi Arabia’s national dish.
  • Turkish cuisine is largely the heritage of Ottoman cuisine, which can be described as a fusion and refinement of Central Asian, West Asian and Balkan cuisines. Turkish cuisine has in turn influenced those and other neighbouring cuisines, including that of western Europe.
  • Yemeni cuisine –
    • Mandi is a traditional Yemeni dish usually made from meat (lamb or chicken), basmati rice, and a mixture of spices.
  • Levantine cuisine – traditional cuisine of Ottoman Syria, now usually called the Levant, known in Arabic as the Bilad ash-Sham. This region shared many culinary traditions under the Ottoman Empire which continue to be influential today. It covers the modern states of Syria, Lebanon, Jordan, Israel, Northern Iraq, northwest Iraq (the province of Mosul), and parts of southern Turkey near Adana, Gaziantep, Antakya and Mardin.
    • Israeli cuisine comprises a mixture of dishes—from those brought back to Israel by Jews from the Diaspora, those from Jews who remained in the region, and those adopted from surrounding Arab inhabitants. Since before the establishment of the modern State of Israel in 1948, and particularly since the late 1970s, an Israeli fusion cuisine has developed.
    • Jewish cuisine — The cuisine of the Jewish diaspora.
    • Jordanian cuisine
    • Lebanese cuisine includes an abundance of starches, fruits, vegetables, fresh fish and seafood; animal fats are consumed sparingly. Poultry is eaten more often than red meat, and when red meat is eaten it is usually lamb on the coast and goat meat in the mountain regions.
    • Syrian cuisine is a diffusion of the cultures of civilizations that settled in Syria, particularly during and after the Islamic era beginning with the Arab Umayyad conquest, then the eventual Persian-influenced Abbasids and ending with the strong influences of Turkish cuisine, resulting from the coming of the Ottoman Turks.
  • South Caucasus cuisine is the cuisine of the various countries and peoples of the South Caucasus, also known as Transcaucasia.
    • Armenian cuisine
    • Azerbaijani cuisine
    • Georgian cuisine
Refer to European cuisine

European cuisine is a generalised term collectively referring to the cuisines of Europe and other Western countries. European cuisine or Western cuisine includes that of Europe including (depending on the definition) that of Russia, as well as non-indigenous cuisines of North America, Australasia, Oceania, and Latin America, which derive substantial influence from European settlers in those regions. The term is used by East Asians to contrast with Asian styles of cooking. The cuisines of Western countries are diverse by themselves, although there are common characteristics that distinguishes Western cooking from cuisines of Asian countries and others. Compared with traditional cooking of Asian countries, for example, meat is more prominent and substantial in serving-size. Wheat-flour bread has long been the most common sources of starch in this cuisine, along with pasta,dumplings and pastries, although the potato has become a major starch plant in the diet of Europeans and their diaspora since the European colonisation of the Americas.

  • Austrian cuisine is a style of cuisine native to Austria and composed of influences from throughout the former Austro-Hungarian Empire. Regional influences from Italy, Hungary, Germany and the Balkans have had an effect on Austrian cooking, and in turn this fusion of styles was influential throughout the Empire.
  • Viennese cuisine
  • Czech cuisine has both influenced and been influenced by the cuisines of surrounding countries. Many of the fine cakes and pastries that are popular in Central Europe originated in the Czech lands. Czech cuisine is marked by a strong emphasis on meat dishes. Pork is quite common, and beef and chicken are also popular.
  • German cuisine
  • Baden cuisine
  • Bavarian cuisine
  • Brandenburg cuisine
  • Franconian cuisine
  • Hamburg cuisine
  • Hessian cuisine
  • Lower Saxon cuisine
  • Mecklenburg cuisine
  • Palatine cuisine
  • Pomeranian cuisine
  • Rhenish-Hessian cuisine
  • Saxon cuisine
  • Schleswig-Holstein cuisine
  • Swabian cuisine
  • Hungarian cuisine is the cuisine characteristic of the nation of Hungary and its primary ethnic group, the Magyars. Traditional Hungarian dishes are primarily based on meats, seasonal vegetables, fruits, fresh bread, cheeses and honey. Recipes are based on centuries-old traditions of spicing and preparation methods.
  • Liechtensteiner cuisine
  • Polish cuisine is the cuisine characteristic of the nation of Poland and its primary ethnic group, the Poles. Traditional Polish dishes are based on meats, vegetables, fruits, breads, cheeses, sausages, milk, etc. The most typical ingredients used in Polish cuisine are sauerkraut, paprika, beetroot, cucumbers (gherkins), sour cream, kohlrabi, mushrooms, sausages and smoked sausage. A meal owes it taste to the herbs and spices used; such as marjoram, dill, caraway seeds, parsley, or pepper. The most popular desserts are cakes and pastries.
  • Silesian cuisine
  • Slovak cuisine varies slightly, though sometimes dramatically, from region to region, and was influenced by the traditional cuisine of its neighbors. The origins of traditional Slovak cuisine can be traced to times when the majority of the population lived in villages, in self-sustenance, with very limited food imports and exports and with no modern means of food preservation or processing. This gave rise to a cuisine heavily dependent on a number of staple foods that could stand the hot summers and cold winters, including wheat, potatoes, milk and milk products, pork meat, sauerkraut and onion. To a lesser degree beef, poultry, lamb and goat, eggs, a few other local vegetables, fruit and wild mushrooms were traditionally eaten.
  • Slovenian cuisine there are many distinct cuisines in a country, whose main distinguishing feature is a great variety and diversity of land formation, climate, wind movements, humidity, terrain and history. Slovenia is a borderland country, surrounded by Italy, Austria, Hungary, and Croatia, with established and distinct national cuisines. There is a wide variety of meats in different parts of Slovenia. Dandelion) is Slovenian wild lettuce, which has been gathered in the fields for centuries.
See also: Eastern European cuisine

  • Belarusian Cuisine shares the same roots with cuisines of other Eastern and Northern European countries, basing predominantly on meat and various vegetables typical for the region.
  • Moldovan Cuisine – Moldova’s fertile soil (chernozem) produces plentiful grapes, fruits, vegetables, cereals, meat and milk products, all of which have found their uses in the national cuisine. The fertile black soil combined with the use of traditional agricultural methods permits growing a wide range of ecologically clean foods in Moldova.
  • Russian Cuisine – Is diverse, as Russia is the largest country in the world. Russia’s great expansions of territory, influence, and interest during the 16th–18th centuries brought more refined foods and culinary techniques, as well as one of the most refined food countries in the world. It was during this period that smoked meats and fish, pastry cooking, salads and green vegetables, chocolate, ice cream, wine, and liquor were imported from abroad. At least for the urban aristocracy and provincial gentry, this opened the doors for the creative integration of these new foodstuffs with traditional Russian dishes. The result is extremely varied in technique, seasoning, and combination. Traditional and common Russian foods include:
  • Tatar Cuisine –
  • Mordovian Cuisine –
  • Soviet Cuisine –
  • Ukrainian Cuisine – Has significant diversity, historical traditions and is influenced by Russian, Turkish and Polish cuisines. Common foods used include meats, vegetables, mushrooms, fruits, berries and herbs. In Ukraine, bread is a staple food, there are many different types of bread, and Ukraine is sometimes referred to as the “breadbasket of Europe”. Pickled vegetables are utilised, particularly when fresh vegetables aren’t in season. There are about 30 varieties of Ukrainian Borsch soup, a common dish that often includes meat.
  • Crimean Tatar Cuisine – Is primarily the cuisine of the Crimean Tatars, who live on the Crimean Peninsula in Ukraine. The traditional cuisine of the Crimean Tatars derives basically from the same roots as the cuisine of the Volga Tatars, although unlike the Volga Tatars they do not eat horse meat and do not drink mare’s milk (kymyz). However, the Crimean Tatars adopted many Uzbek dishes during their exile in Central Asia since 1944, and these dishes have been absorbed into Crimean Tatar national cuisine after their return to Crimea.
  • Caucasian Cuisine – cuisines of The Caucasus
  • Armenian Cuisine – Includes the foods and cooking techniques of the Armenian people, the Armenian diaspora and traditional Armenian foods and dishes. The cuisine reflects the history and geography where Armenians have lived as well as incorporating outside influences. The cuisine also reflects the traditional crops and animals grown and raised in areas populated by Armenians.
  • Azerbaijani Cuisine – Is the cuisine of Azerbaijan. Azerbaijani cuisine throughout the centuries has been influenced by the foods of different cultures due to political and economic processes in Azerbaijan. Out of 11 climate zones known in the world, the Azerbaijani climate has nine. This contributes to the fertility of the land, which in its turn results in the richness of the country’s cuisine.
  • Georgian Cuisine – Refers to the cooking styles and dishes with origins in the nation of Georgia and prepared by Georgian people around the world. The Georgian cuisine is specific to the country, but also contains some influences from the Middle Eastern and European culinary traditions.
  • Regional cuisines of medieval Europe were the results of differences in climate, seasonal food variations, political administration and religious customs that varied across the continent.

By region

Eastern Europe

See also: Eastern European cuisine

  • Armenian cuisine – Includes the foods and cooking techniques of the Armenian people, the Armenian diaspora and traditional Armenian foods and dishes. The cuisine reflects the history and geography where Armenians have lived as well as incorporating outside influences. The cuisine also reflects the traditional crops and animals grown and raised in areas populated by Armenians.
  • Azerbaijani cuisine
  • Belarusian cuisine – Shares the same roots with cuisines of other Eastern and Northern European countries, basing predominantly on meat and various vegetables typical for the region.
  • Bulgarian cuisine is a representative of the cuisine of Southeastern Europe. Essentially South Slavic, it shares characteristics with other Balkans cuisines. Owing to the relatively warm climate and diverse geography affording excellent growth conditions for a variety of vegetables, herbs and fruits, Bulgarian cuisine is diverse.
  • Caucasian cuisine
  • Czech cuisine has both influenced and been influenced by the cuisines of surrounding countries. Many of the fine cakes and pastries that are popular in Central Europe originated in the Czech lands. Czech cuisine is marked by a strong emphasis on meat dishes. Pork is quite common, and beef and chicken are also popular.
  • Georgian cuisine refers to the cooking styles and dishes with origins in the nation of Georgia and prepared by Georgian people around the world. The Georgian cuisine is specific to the country, but also contains some influences from the Middle Eastern and European culinary traditions.
  • Hungarian cuisine is the cuisine characteristic of the nation of Hungary and its primary ethnic group, the Magyars. Traditional Hungarian dishes are primarily based on meats, seasonal vegetables, fruits, fresh bread, cheeses and honey. Recipes are based on centuries-old traditions of spicing and preparation methods.
  • Moldovan cuisine Moldova’s fertile soil (chernozem) produces plentiful grapes, fruits, vegetables, cereals, meat and milk products, all of which have found their uses in the national cuisine. The fertile black soil combined with the use of traditional agricultural methods permits growing a wide range of ecologically clean foods in Moldova.
  • Polish cuisine is a style of cooking and food preparation originating from Poland. Polish national cuisine shares some similarities with other Central European and Eastern European traditions as well as French and Italian similarities.
  • Romanian cuisine is a diverse blend of different dishes from several traditions with which it has come into contact, but it also maintains its own character. It has been greatly influenced by Ottoman cuisine.
  • Russian cuisine
  • Slovak cuisine varies slightly, though sometimes dramatically, from region to region, and was influenced by the traditional cuisine of its neighbours. The origins of traditional Slovak cuisine can be traced to times when the majority of the population lived in villages, in self-sustenance, with very limited food imports and exports and with no modern means of food preservation or processing. This gave rise to a cuisine heavily dependent on a number of staple foods that could stand the hot summers and cold winters, including wheat, potatoes, milk and milk products, pork meat,sauerkraut and onion. To a lesser degree beef, poultry, lamb and goat, eggs, a few other local vegetables, fruit and wild mushrooms were traditionally eaten.
  • In Slovenian cuisine, there are many distinct cuisines in a country, whose main distinguishing feature is a great variety and diversity of land formation, climate, wind movements, humidity, terrain and history. Slovenia is a borderland country, surrounded by Italy, Austria, Hungary, and Croatia, with established and distinct national cuisines. There is a wide variety of meats in different parts of Slovenia. Dandelion is Slovenian wild lettuce, which has been gathered in the fields for centuries.
  • Ukrainian cuisine has significant diversity, historical traditions and is influenced by Russian, Polish, Turkish and Polish cuisines. Common foods used include meats, vegetables, mushrooms, fruits, berries and herbs. In Ukraine, bread is a staple food, there are many different types of bread, and Ukraine is sometimes referred to as the “breadbasket of Europe.” Pickled vegetables are utilised, particularly when fresh vegetables aren’t in season. There are about 30 varieties of Ukrainian Borsch soup, a common dish that often includes meat.
  • Crimean Tatar cuisine is primarily the cuisine of the Crimean Tatars, who live on the Crimean Peninsula in Ukraine. The traditional cuisine of the Crimean Tatars derives basically from the same roots as the cuisine of the Volga Tatars, although unlike the Volga Tatars they do not eat horse meat and do not drink mare’s milk (kymyz). However, the Crimean Tatars adopted many Uzbek dishes during their exile in Central Asia since 1944, and these dishes have been absorbed into Crimean Tatar national cuisine after their return to Crimea.

Northern Europe

  • British cuisine is the specific set of cooking traditions and practices associated with the United Kingdom. British cuisine has been described as “unfussy dishes made with quality local ingredients, matched with simple sauces to accentuate flavour, rather than disguise it.” However, British cuisine has absorbed the cultural influence of those that have settled in Britain, producing hybrid dishes, such as the Anglo-Indian chicken tikka masala.”
  • English cuisine –
  • Anglo-Indian cuisine
  • Scottish cuisine is the specific set of cooking traditions and practices associated with Scotland. It has distinctive attributes and recipes of its own, but shares much with wider European cuisine as a result of foreign and local influences both ancient and modern. Scotland’s natural larder of game, dairy, fish, fruit, and vegetables is the integral factor in traditional Scottish cooking. Scotland, with its temperate climate and abundance of indigenous game species, has provided a cornucopia of food for its inhabitants for millennia. The wealth of seafood available on and off the coasts provided the earliest settlers with their sustenance. Agriculture was introduced, with primitive oats quickly becoming the staple.
  • Welsh cuisine
  • Danish cuisine
  • Estonian cuisine
  • Finnish cuisine
  • Icelandic cuisine
  • Irish cuisine
  • Lappish cuisine
  • Latvian cuisine
  • Lithuanian cuisine
  • Norwegian cuisine
  • Swedish cuisine

Southern Europe

  • Albanian cuisine is uniquely influenced by Turkish,Greek, and Italian cuisines. Every region in Albania has its own unique dishes. Albanian cuisine is characterised by the use of various Mediterranean herbs such as oregano, black pepper, mint, basilico, rosemary and more in cooking meat and fish.
  • Bosnian cuisine
  • Croatian cuisine
  • Cypriot cuisine
  • Gibraltarian cuisine
  • Greek cuisine
    • Macedonian Greek cuisine
  • Italian cuisine
  • Macedonian cuisine
  • Maltese cuisine
  • Montenegrin cuisine
  • Portuguese cuisine
    • Azorean cuisine
  • Serbian cuisine
  • Slovenian cuisine
  • Spanish cuisine
  • Turkish cuisine
Provincial cuisines within Southern Europe

In Italian cuisine – In Italian cuisine, each area has its own specialties, primarily at the regional level, but also at provincial levels. The cuisine has an abundance of differences in taste, and is known to be one of the most popular in the world, with influences abroad. The differences can derive from a bordering country (such as France or Austria), whether a region is close to the sea or the mountains, and economics. Italian cuisine is also seasonal, often incorporating fresh produce. Regional Italian cuisines include:

  • Abruzzo and Molise
  • Basilicatan
  • Calabrian
  • Emilia-Romagnan
  • Friuli-Venezia Giulia
  • Lazio
  • Ligurian
  • Lombardy
  • Marche
  • Neapolitan cuisine, Campania
  • Piedmontese
  • Puglian
  • Sardinian cuisine
  • Sicilian cuisine
  • Trentino-Alto Adige/South Tyrol
  • Tuscan cuisine
  • Umbrian
  • Valle d’Aostan
  • Venetian cuisine

Spanish cuisine has many diverse regional cuisines based upon differences in geography, culture and climate. It is heavily influenced by seafood available from the waters that surround the country. Spain’s extensive history with many cultural influences has led to an array of unique cuisines with literally thousands of recipes and flavours. Regional Spanish cuisines include:

  • Andalusian cuisine
  • Asturian cuisine
  • Aragonese cuisine
  • Balearic cuisine
  • Basque cuisine
  • Canarian cuisine
  • Cantabrian cuisine
  • Castilian-Manchego cuisine
  • Catalan cuisine
  • Extremaduran cuisine
  • Galician cuisine
  • Leonese cuisine
  • Valencian cuisine

Western Europe

  • Austrian cuisine is a style of cuisine native to Austria and composed of influences from throughout the former Austro-Hungarian Empire. Regional influences from Italy, Hungary, Germany and the Balkans have had an effect on Austrian cooking, and in turn this fusion of styles was influential throughout the Empire.
  • Belgian cuisine
  • Dutch cuisine
  • French cuisine
    • Haute cuisine
    • Cuisine classique
    • Nouvelle cuisine
  • German cuisine
  • Liechtensteiner cuisine
  • Luxembourgian cuisine
  • Swiss cuisine
Regional cuisines
  • Regional Dutch cuisinescan be distinguished by three geographic regions in The Netherlands, northeastern, western and southern cuisine.
  • French regional cuisineis characterised by its extreme diversity and style. Traditionally, each region of France has its own distinctive cuisine. French cuisine styles include Nouvelle cuisine, Haute cuisine and Cuisine classique. In November 2010 the French gastronomy was added by UNESCO to its lists of the world’s “intangible cultural heritage”.
  • German regional cuisinecan be divided into Bavarian cuisine(Southern Germany), Lower Saxon cuisine(Northern Germany), Thuringian (Central Germany) and Saxony-Anhalt (Central Germany).
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Main article: Middle Eastern cuisine

Middle Eastern, or West Asian cuisine is the cuisine of the various countries and peoples of the Middle East (Western Asia). The cuisine of the region is diverse while having a degree of homogeneity. Many Middle Eastern dishes are made with a paste called tahini. Tahini is a sesame paste made with hulled seeds, unlike its Asian counterpart. It is used to make such popular meze, or appetisers, as baba ghanoush and hummus along with pungent dipping sauces served with falafel,keftes or kofta and vegetables. Hummus is made from chickpeas, which are staples of the diet. Some commonly used ingredients include olives and olive oil, lamb,pitas,honey, sesame seeds,dates,sumac,chickpeas,mint and parsley. Some popular dishes include kibbeh and shawarma.

By region

  • Arab cuisine of the Persian Gulf- Arab cuisine of the Persian Gulf today is the result of combination of diverse cuisines, incorporating Lebanese, Indian, Chinese, and Persian cooking styles, and many items not originally indigenous to the Persian Gulf region, which were most probably imported on the dhows and the caravans.
  • Omani cuisineis generally very simple, with the aid of many spices andmarinadesto complete a dish, which usually consists of chicken, fish, and mutton. Unlike many other Asian nations, Omani cuisine is not spicy, and varies between regions.
  • Afghan cuisine
  • Armenian cuisine
  • Azerbaijani cuisine
  • Assyrian cuisine
  • Bahraini cuisine
  • Cypriot cuisine
  • Emirati cuisine
  • Georgian cuisine
  • Iranian cuisine
  • Iraqi cuisine
  • Israeli cuisine
  • Indian cuisine
  • Jordanian cuisine
  • Kurdish cuisine
  • Kuwaiti cuisine
  • Lebanese cuisine
  • Pakistani cuisine
  • Palestinian cuisine
  • Saudi Arabian cuisine
  • Syrian cuisine
  • Turkish cuisine
  • Yemeni cuisine

Regional cuisines

        • Pakistani regional cuisinescan be categorised byBaloch cuisine,Kashmiri cuisine,Pashtun cuisine,Muhajir cuisine,Punjabi cuisine,Lahori cuisine,Mughlai cuisineandSindhi cuisine.

See also: Cuisine of the Americas

Canada

Refer to : Canadian cuisine

Canadian cuisine varies widely from depending on the regions of the nation. The former Canadian prime minister Joe Clark has been paraphrased to have noted: “Canada has a cuisine of cuisines. Not a stew pot, but a smorgasbord.” The three earliest cuisines of Canada have First Nations, English, and French roots, with the traditional cuisine of English Canada closely related to British and American cuisine, while the traditional cuisine of French Canada has evolved from French cuisine and the winter provisions of fur traders. With subsequent waves of immigration in the 18th and 19th century from Central, Southern, and Eastern Europe, and also from China, the regional cuisines were subsequently augmented. Common contenders as the Canadian national food include Poutine and Butter tarts.
Canada is the world’s largest producer of maple syrup, and the sugar maple’s leaf has come to symbolise Canada and is depicted on the country’s flag.

By region

        • Cuisine of Quebec – Quebec is most famous for its tourtières(meat pies), pea soup, baked beans, cretons, ham dishes, maple desserts such as Pouding chômeurand “tire Ste-Catherine” (St. Catherine’s Taffy).
        • Canadian Chinese cuisine
        • Cuisine of Torontoreflects Toronto’s size and multicultural diversity.
        • Cuisine of the Maritime Provinces- the Maritimes region of Canada has some unique foods; the region has foodstuffs that are indigenous the area and cultural phenomena has brought non-native foods to the area. The region is in Eastern Canada, and comprises three provinces: New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and Prince Edward Island. On the Atlantic coast, the Maritimes are a subregion of Atlantic Canada. Much of what is local food or regional cuisine there could be found in the foods of the Native Peoples or indigenous people, sometimes called Indians, whose cultures preceded those to be found in the Maritimes today.

Caribbean

See Caribbaean Cuisine

Greenland

Greenlandic cuisine is traditionally based on meat from marine mammals, game, birds, and fish, and normally contains high levels of protein. Since colonisation and the arrival of international trade, the cuisine has been increasingly influenced by Danish and Canadian cuisine. Since the majority of Greenland is covered by permanent glaciers, the sea is the source of most domestically sourced food. Seafood dishes include various fishes (often smoked), mussels, and shrimp. Ammassat or capelin, a fish in the salmon family is commonly consumed. The national dish of Greenland is suaasat, a traditional Greenlandic soup. It is often made from seal, or from whale, reindeer, or sea birds. The soup often includes onions and potatoes, and is simply seasoned with salt and pepper, or bay leaf. The soup is often thickened with rice, or by soaking barley in the water overnight so that the starches leach into the water. During the summer, meals are often eaten outdoors.

Mexico

Main article: Mexican cuisine
See also: Maya cuisine

Mexican food varies by region because of Mexico’s large size and diversity, different climates and geography, ethnic differences among the indigenous inhabitants and because different populations were influenced by the Spaniards in varying degrees. The north of Mexico is known for its beef, goat and ostrich production and meat dishes, in particular the well-known arrachera cut. The food staples of Mexican cuisine are typically corn and beans. Corn is used to make masa, a dough fortamales,tortillas,gorditas, and many other corn-based foods. Corn is also eaten fresh, as corn on the cob and as a component of a number of dishes. Squash and chilli peppers also prominent in Mexican cuisine. Honey is an important ingredient in many Mexican dishes, such as the rosca de miel, a bundt-like cake, and in beverages such as balché. Mexican cuisine was added by UNESCO to its lists of the world’s “Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity”.

By region

Mexico’s six regions differ greatly in their cuisines. In the Yucatán, anchiote seasoning is commonly used, which is a sweet red sauce with a slight peppery flavour, made from seeds of the tropical annatto plant and sour orange. In contrast, the Oaxacan region is known for its savoury tamales, moles, and simple tlayudas, while the mountainous regions of the West (Jalisco, etc.) are known for goatbirria(goat in a spicy tomato-based sauce).

Central Mexico’s cuisine is influenced by the rest of the country, and also has unique dishes such as barbacoa, pozole, menudo and carnitas.

Southeastern Mexico is known for its spicy vegetable and chicken-based dishes. The cuisine of Southeastern Mexico has a considerable Caribbean influence due to its location. Seafood is commonly prepared in states that border the Pacific Ocean or the Gulf of Mexico, the latter having a famous reputation for its fish dishes, à la veracruzana.

Inpueblosor villages, there are also more exotic dishes, cooked in the Aztec or Mayan style (known as comida prehispánica) with ingredients ranging from iguana to rattlesnake, deer, spider monkey, chapulines, ant eggs, and other kinds of insects.

Recently other cuisines of the world have acquired popularity in Mexico, thus adopting a Mexican fusion. For example, sushi in Mexico is often made with a variety of sauces based on mango or tamarind, and very often served withserrano-chilli-blended soy sauce, or complimented with habanero and chipotle peppers.

United States

See also : American Cuisine and List of American regional and fusion cuisines

      • Creole Jambalaya with shrimp, ham, tomato, and Andouille sausage

American cuisine is a style of food preparation originating from the United States of America. European colonisation of the Americas yielded the introduction of a number of ingredients and cooking styles to the latter. The various styles continued expanding well in to the 19th and 20th centuries, proportional to the influx of immigrants from many foreign nations; such influx developed a rich diversity in food preparation throughout the country.Native American cuisine includes all food practices of the indigenous peoples of the Americas. Modern-day native peoples retain a rich body of traditional foods, some of which have become iconic of present-day Native American social gatherings.

By region

        • California cuisine is a style of cuisine marked by an interest infusion(integrating disparate cooking styles and ingredients) and in the use of freshly prepared local ingredients.
        • Hawaiian cuisine in modern times is a fusion of many cuisines brought by multi-ethnic immigrants to the Hawaiian Islands, particularly of American, Chinese, Filipino, Japanese, Korean, Polynesian and Portuguese origins, including plant and animal food sources imported from around the world for agricultural use in Hawaii. Many local restaurants serve the ubiquitous plate lunch featuring the Asian staple, two scoops of rice, a simplified version of American macaroni salad(consisting of macaroni noodles and mayonnaise), and a variety of different toppings ranging from the hamburger patty, a fried egg, and gravy of a Loco Moco, Japanese style tonkatsu or the traditional lu’au favourite, kalua pig.
        • Louisiana Creole cuisine is a style of cooking originating in Louisiana that blends French,Spanish,Portuguese,Italian,Greek,Asian Indian,Native American,African, and general Southern cuisine.
        • Midwestern U.S. cuisine is a regional cuisine of the American Midwest. It draws its culinary roots most significantly from the cuisines of Central, Northern and Eastern Europe, and is influenced by regionally and locally grown foodstuffs and cultural diversity.
        • Cuisine of New England comprises Northeastern U.S. cuisine, including the six states of Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, and Vermont. The American Indians cuisine became part of the cookery style that the early colonists brought with them.
        • The cuisine of New York City comprises many cuisines belonging to var Virgin Islands|British Virgin Iered the United States through the city. Almost all ethnic cuisines are available in New York City, both in and out of their various ethnic neighbourhoods.
        • Pacific Northwest cuisine is an North American cuisine of the states of Oregon, Washington and Alaska, and the provinces of British Columbia and the southern Yukon. The cuisine reflects the ethnic makeup of the region, with noticeable influence from Asian and Native American traditions.
        • The cuisine of the Southern United States is defined as the historical regional culinary form of states generally south of the Mason Dixon Line dividing Pennsylvania from Maryland and Delaware as well as along the Ohio River, and extending west to Texas. See also: Soul food and Cuisine of Kentucky.
        • Southwestern U.S. cuisine is food styled after the rustic cooking of the Southwestern United States. It comprises a fusion of recipes for things that might have been eaten by Spanish colonial settlers, cowboys, Native Americans, and Mexicans throughout the post-Columbian era. there is, however, a great diversity in this type of cuisine throughout the Southwestern states.
        • The cuisine of the Western United States can be distinct in various ways compared to the rest of the U.S. Those states west of Texas, Kansas, Missouri, and Nebraska would be considered part of this area, as would, in some cases, western parts of adjoining states. The concept of obtaining foods locally is increasingly influential, as is the concept of sustainability. The influence of the Native American cultures of each area, but especially in the Northwest and in Navajo country, is important in the cuisine picture of the Western United States.

Regional cuisines

        • Chinese American cuisine
        • Floribbean cuisine
        • Italian-American cuisine
        • Lowcountry cuisine, traditionally associated with the South Carolina Lowcountry and the Georgia coast
        • Pig roast
        • San Francisco burrito
        • Maine lobster
        • Manhattan clam chowder
        • New American cuisine
        • New England boiled dinner
        • New England clam bake
        • New England clam chowder
        • New Mexican cuisine(New Mexico)
        • New York-style pizza
        • Cuisine of Philadelphia
        • Philadelphia cheesesteak
        • Santa Maria Style BBQ, Santa Barbara County, California
        • St. Louis-style barbecue
        • St. Louis-style pizza
        • Tex-Mex
        • White hot
Main article: Caribbean cuisine

Caribbean cuisine is a fusion of African, Amerindian, British, Spanish, French, Dutch, Indian, and Chinese cuisine. These traditions were brought from the many homelands of this region’s population.

By region

  • Anguillan cuisine
  • Antigua and Barbuda cuisine
  • Aruban cuisine
  • Bahamian cuisine
  • Barbadian cuisine
  • Belizean cuisine
  • Bermudian cuisine
  • British Virgin Islands cuisine
  • Cayman Islands cuisine
  • Cuban cuisine
  • Cuisine of Curaçao
  • Dominican cuisine
  • Dominican Republic cuisine
  • Grenadian cuisine
  • Guadeloupe cuisine
  • Guyanese cuisine
  • Guianan cuisine
  • Haitian cuisine
  • Jamaican cuisine
  • Martinican cuisine
  • Montserrat cuisine
  • Puerto Rican cuisine
  • St. Kitts and Nevis cuisine
  • Saint Lucian cuisine
  • Saint Vincent cuisine
  • Surinamese cuisine
  • Trinidad and Tobago cuisine
  • Turks and Caicos cuisine
  • US Virgin Islands cuisine

Central American cuisine

See also: § Latin American cuisine, Maya cuisine, and Agriculture in Mesoamerica

Central American cuisine – some typical foods in Central American cuisine include maize-based dishes, tortillas, tamales, pupusas, various salsas and other condiments, such as guacamole, pico de gallo, mole, chimichurri and pebre.

  • Belizean cuisine is an amalgamation of all the ethnicities in the nation of Belize, and their respective wide variety of foods. Culinary influences include Mayan, Garifuna, Spanish, Creole, Chinese, British, Caribbean, and American. Beans, tortillas, cheese, chicken, rice and seafood are common in the cuisine.
  • Costa Rican cuisine – a common dish is
    gallo pinto, which is rice and black beans. Tortillas, plantains, fish, beef and chicken are part of the cuisine.
    Casado is a traditional dish comprising meat served with tortillas and side items such as black beans and rice, or gallo pinto.
    Refrescos in Costa Rica refers to cold fruit smoothie beverages made with fruit and milk or water.
  • Salvadoran cuisine consists of food from the Maya, Lenca, and Pipil people. The cuisine is also influenced by Spanish cuisine. Empanadas, tamales and pupusas are widespread, and seafood is common because of San Salvador’s extensive coastline.
  • Guatemalan cuisine was influenced by the Mayan Empire, Spanish rule and the current modernized country. Guatemala has 22 departments (or divisions), each of which has varying food varieties.
  • Honduran cuisine is a fusion of African, Spanish, and indigenous cuisine. Coconut is used in both sweet and savoury dishes. Regional specialties include fried fish, tamales,carne asada and baleadas. Common dishes include grilled meats, tortillas, rice and beans. Seafood is common in the Bay Islands and on the Caribbean coast.
  • Nicaraguan cuisine is a mixture of Spanish, Creole, Garifuna and indigenous cuisines and foods. When the Spaniards first arrived in Nicaragua they found that the Creole people present had incorporated foods available in the area into their cuisine. Despite the blending and incorporation of pre-Columbian and Spanish influenced cuisine, traditional cuisine changes from the Pacific to the Caribbean coast. While the Pacific coast’s main staple revolves around local fruits and corn, the Caribbean coast’s cuisine makes use of seafood and the coconut. Traditional Nicaraguan foods include beans, corn, plantains, peppers and yucca.
  • Panamanian cuisine is both unique and rich. As a land bridge between two continents, Panama possesses an unusual variety of tropical fruits, vegetables and herbs that are used in native cooking. Panamanian cuisine is a unique mix of African, Caribbean, Spanish and Native American cooking and dishes.
See also : South American cuisine See also : Latin American cuisine See also : Cuisine of the Americas
  • South American cuisine – Some of the richest food products of South America come from the middle of the continent, the Amazon basin. For example, the Amazon region provides a plethora of fresh fish and tropical fruits. In countries like Peru there is a strong influence of the Inca empire and their cuisine. Potatoes are frequently grown as a result of this, and also plants such as quinoa. On the Southern tip of South America lies the Pacific Ocean, which provides a large array of seafood. Many plains also are on this continent, which are rich for growing food in abundance. In the Patagonia south of Chile and Argentina, many people produce lamb and venison. King crab is typically caught at the southern end of the continent. Antarctic krill has just recently been discovered and is now another food source. Tuna and tropical fish are caught all around the continent; Easter Island is one place where they are found in abundance. Lobster is also caught in great quantities from Juan Fernández. In Brazil the most traditional dish is the feijoada.
  • Argentinian cuisine may be referred to as a cultural blending of indigenous Mediterranean influences (such as those exerted by Italian-Spanish and Arabic populations) with the wide scope of livestock and agricultural products which are abundant in the country.
  • Bolivian cuisine
  • Brazilian cuisine, like Brazil itself, varies greatly by region. The natural crops available in each region add to their singularity. Some typical dishes are caruru, which consists of okra, onion, dried shrimp and toasted nuts (peanuts or cashews) cooked with palm oil until a spread-like consistency is reached and moqueca capixaba, consisting of slow-cooked fish, tomato, onion and garlic topped with cilantro.
  • Chilean cuisine stems mainly from the combination of Spanish cuisine with traditional Chilean ingredients, with later influences from other European cuisines, particularly from Germany, Italy, Croatia, France and the Middle East. The food tradition and recipes in Chile stand out due to the varieties in flavors and colors. The country’s long coastline and the Chilean peoples’ relationship with the sea adds an immense array of ocean products to the variety of the food in Chile. The country’s waters are home to unique species of fish and shellfish such as the Chilean sea bass, loco and picoroco.
  • Colombian cuisine refers to the cooking traditions and practices of Colombia. Along with other cultural expressions of national identity, Colombian cuisine varies among its many distinct regions. Colombians typically eat three meals a day: a large breakfast, a medium lunch between 12-2, and a light dinner. Colombian coffee is well known for its high standards in taste compared to others.
  • Ecuadorian cuisine is diverse, varying with altitude and associated agricultural conditions. Pork, chicken, beef, and
    cuy (guinea pig) are popular in the mountain regions and are served with a variety of carbohydrate-rich foods, especially rice, corn and potatoes. A popular street food in mountain regions is
    hornado, consisting of potatoes served with roasted pig.
  • Paraguayan cuisine is similar to the cuisines in Uruguay and the Falkland Islands. Cuisine of Paraguay, Uruguay and the Falkland Islands, Guarani and European Influences. Meats, vegetables, manioc, maize and fruits are common in Paraguayan cuisine. Barbecuing is both a cooking technique and often a social event, and are known as Asados.
  • Cuisine of Asunción
  • Peruvian cuisine reflects local cooking practices and ingredients—and, through immigration, influences from Spanish, Chinese, Italian, West African, and Japanese cuisine. Many traditional foods—such as quinoa, kiwicha, chilli peppers, and several roots and tubers have increased in popularity in recent decades, reflecting a revival of interest in native Peruvian foods and culinary techniques.
  • Peruvian-Chinese cuisine (chifa)
  • Uruguayan cuisine is traditionally based on its European roots, in particular, Mediterranean food from Italy, Spain, Portugal and France, but also from countries such as Germany and Britain, along with African and indigenous mixtures. The national drink is the Grappamiel.
  • Cuisine of Montevideo
  • Venezuelan cuisine – Due to its location in the world, its diversity of industrial resources and the cultural diversity of the Venezuelan people, Venezuelan cuisine often varies greatly from one region to another; however, its cuisine, traditional as well as modern, has strong ties to its European ancestry.

Australia

Refer to Australian Cuisine

Other than by climate and produce availability, Australian cuisine has been influenced by the tastes of settlers to Australia.

New Zealand

Refer to New Zealand Cuisine

New Zealand cuisine is largely based upon local ingredients and seasonal variations. New Zealand is an island nation with a strong agricultural-based economy, and nationally and regionally grown produce and fresh seafood is prominent.

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