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Cuisines of the World

Global cuisines may vary based upon food availability and trade, various climates and ecosystems, cooking traditions and practices, and cultural differences. Regional food preparation traditions, customs and ingredients often coalesce to create dishes unique to a particular region, and regional cuisines are often named after the geographic areas or regions they originate from.

There have been significant improvements during the last century in food preservation, storage, shipping and production, and today most countries, cities and regions have access to their traditional cuisines and many other global cuisines. New cuisines continue to evolve in contemporary times. For example, fusion cuisine combines elements of various culinary traditions while not being categorised per any one cuisine style, and can pertain to innovations in many contemporary cuisines.

Note: This article is organised by continent — there may be some link overlap due to varying conventions and models of continental definition.
Africa North Africa Horn of Africa East Africa Central Africa Southern Africa West AfricaAsiaCentral AsiaEast AsiaSouth AsiaSoutheast AsiaWest AsianEuropeCentral EuropeEastern EuropeNorthern EuropeSouthern EuropeWestern EuropeMediterraneanMiddle EastNorth AmericaCaribbeanCentral AmericaSouth AmericaOceania
Refer to African Cuisine African cuisine is a generalised term collectively referring to the cuisines of Africa. The continent of Africa is the second largest landmass on Earth, and is home to hundreds of different cultural and ethnic groups. This diversity is also reflected in the many local culinary traditions in terms of choice of ingredients, style of preparation and cooking techniques.

Traditionally, the various cuisines of Africa use a combination of locally available fruits, cereal grains and vegetables, as well as milk and meat products. In some parts of the continent, the traditional diet features a preponderance of milk, curd and whey products. In much of tropical Africa, however, cow’s milk is rare and cannot be produced locally (owing to various diseases that affect livestock). Depending on the region, there are also sometimes quite significant differences in the eating and drinking habits and proclivities throughout the continent’s many populations: Central Africa, East Africa, the Horn of Africa, North Africa, Southern Africa and West Africa each have their own distinctive dishes, preparation techniques, and consumption mores.

North African Cuisine

Refer to North African Cuisine

In North African cuisine, the most common staple foods are meat, seafood, goat, lamb, beef, dates, almonds, olives, various vegetables and fruit. Because the region is predominantly Muslim, halal meats are usually eaten. The best-known North African/Berber dish abroad is surely couscous.

  • Algerian cuisine – A distinct fusion of Middle Eastern and Mediterranean cuisines.
  • Egyptian cuisine – Consists of the local culinary traditions of Egypt. Egyptian cuisine makes heavy use of legumes and vegetables, as Egypt’s rich Nile Valley and Delta produce large quantities of high-quality crops.
  • Libyan cuisine – Is the cooking traditions, practices, foods and dishes associated with the country of Libya. The cuisine derives much from the culinary traditions of the Mediterranean and North Africa, with an Italian influence, a legacy from the days when Libya was an Italian colony.
  • Mauritanian cuisine – Mauritania food can be described as a combination of rice and fish. Rice is the staple food of the people in Mauritania and dried fish is eaten for both lunch and dinner. Fish balls are generally served on festive occasions in Mauritania. Dates are available in plenty throughout the country and are used extensively in the preparation of vegetarian food along with the dessert items
  • Moroccan cuisine – Extremely diverse, thanks to Morocco’s interaction with other cultures and nations over the centuries. Moroccan cuisine has been subject to Berber, Moorish, Mediterranean, and Arab influences. The cooks in the royal kitchens of Fez, Meknes, Marrakesh, Rabat and Tetouan refined it over the centuries and created the basis for what is known as Moroccan cuisine today.
  • Sudanese cuisine – Sudanese cuisine is varied by region, and greatly affected by the cross-cultural influences upon Sudan throughout history. In addition to the influences of the indigenous African peoples, the cuisine was influenced by Arab traders and settlers during the Ottoman Empire,
  • Tunisian cuisine – The cuisine of Tunisia is a blend of Mediterranean and desert dwellers’ culinary traditions. Its distinctive spicy fieriness comes from neighbouring Mediterranean countries and the many civilisations which have ruled the land now known as Tunisia.
  • Western Saharan Cuisine – The Western Saharan cuisine has several influences, as the population of that area (Sahrawi), in their most part are of Arabic and Berber origin. The Saharawi cuisine is also influenced by Spanish cuisine owing to Spanish colonisation.

Horn of Africa Cuisine

Refer to Horn of Africa cuisine

The Horn of Africa is a peninsula in East Africa that juts hundreds of kilometres into the Arabian Sea and lies along the southern side of the Gulf of Aden. Besides sharing similar geographic features, the countries of the Horn of Africa are, for the most part, linguistically and ethnically linked together. Cuisine in the region involves many cooking techniques and ingredients. The main traditional dishes in Eritrean cuisine are tsebhis (stews) served with injera (flatbread made from teff, wheat, or sorghum), and hilbet (paste made from legumes, mainly lentil, faba beans). Common Ethiopian cuisine consists of various vegetable or meat side dishes and entrées, usually a wat, or thick stew, served atop or scooped with injera, a large sourdough flatbread made of teff flour, the dough of which is fermented for several days before cooking. Somalian cuisine varies from region to region and consists of an exotic mixture of diverse culinary influences. It is a product of Somalia’s rich tradition of trade and commerce. Xalwo or halva is a popular confection served during special occasions such as Eid celebrations or wedding receptions.

  • Djiboutian Cuisine – A fusion of Djibouti’s native traditions, and the area’s long history of trade and social interaction with other regions and cultures. Meals are typically halal
  • Ethiopian Cuisine – Characteristically consists of spicy vegetable and meat dishes, usually in the form of wat (or wot), a thick stew, served atop injera, a large sourdough flatbread, which is about 50 cm in diameter and made out of fermented teff flour. Ethiopians eat with their right hands, using pieces of injera to pick up bites of entrées and side dishes. Utensils are rarely used with Ethiopian cuisine.
  • Eritrean Cuisine – Is a fusion of Eritrea’s native culinary traditions, and the area’s long history of trade and social interchanges with other regions and cultures.
  • Somali Cuisine – Varies from region to region and is a fusion of different Somali culinary traditions. It is the product of Somalia’s tradition of trade and commerce. Some notable Somali delicacies include sabayad, lahoh/canjeelo, xalwo, sambuusa, bariis iskukaris, and odka.

East African Cuisine

Refer to East African Cuisine

East Africa is the eastern region of the African continent, variably defined by geography or geopolitics. In the UN scheme of geographic regions, 19 territories constitute Eastern Africa: This is a vast region with many diverse cuisines.

  • Burundian cuisine – Burundi has a territory full of mountains, savannas and agricultural fields, with forests in the surrounding of rivers and waters. Agriculture is spread on 80% of the country’s surface and it especially includes coffee, tea, corn, beans and manioc.
  • Kenyan Cuisine – There is no singular dish that represents all of Kenya. Different communities have their own native foods. Staples are maize and other cereals depending on the region including millet and sorghum eaten with various meats and vegetables. The foods that are universally eaten in Kenya are ugali, sukuma wiki, and nyama choma. Sukuma wiki, a Swahili phrase which literally means “to push the week,” is a simple dish made with greens similar to kale or collards that can also be made with cassava leaves, sweet potato leaves, or pumpkin leaves. Its Swahili name comes from the fact that it is typically eaten to “get through the week” or “stretch the week.” Nyama choma is grilled meat – usually goat or sheep. It is grilled over an open fire. It is usually eaten with ugali and kachumbari.
  • Maasai cuisine
  • Rwandan Cuisine – Is based on local staple foods produced by the traditional subsistence-level agriculture and has historically varied between the country’s different ethnic groups.
  • South Sudanese Cuisine – Is based on grains (maize, sorghum). It uses yams, potatoes, vegetables, legumes (beans, lentil, peanuts), meat (goat, mutton, chicken and fish near the rivers and lakes), okra and fruit as well. Meat is boiled, grilled or dried.
  • Tanzanian Cuisine – Is both unique and widely varied. Along the coastal regions (Dar es Salaam, Tanga, Bagamoyo, Zanzibar, and Pemba), spicy foods are common, and there is also much use of coconut milk. Regions in Tanzania’s mainland also have their own unique foods. Some typical mainland Tanzanian foods include rice (wali), ugali (maize porridge), chapati (a kind of bread), nyama choma (grilled meat), mshikaki (marinated beef), fish, pilau, biryani, and ndizi-nyama (plantains with meat). Commonly used vegetables include bamia (okra), mchicha (a kind of spinach), njegere (green peas), maharage (beans), and kisamvu (cassava leaves).
  • Zanzibari Cuisine – Reflects several heterogeneous influences, as a consequence of the multi-cultural and multi-ethnic nature of Zanzibar’s and Swahili heritage. It is a mixture of various culinary traditions, including Bantu, Arab, Portuguese, Indian, British and even Chinese cuisine.
  • Ugandan Cuisine – Consists of traditional and modern cooking styles, practices, foods and dishes in Uganda, with English, Arab, and Asian (especially Indian) influences.

Central African Cuisine

Refer to Central African Cuisine

Can be considered as traditional because of the remote nature of the region, which remained relatively isolated until the 19th century. Some foods, such as cassava (a food staple in Central Africa), groundnuts (peanuts) and chilli peppers were imported from the New World. Plantains are also common in Central African cuisine. Meats, such as crocodile, antelope, monkey and warthog, are sometimes hunted in the forests. Bambra is a porridge made from cooked rice, peanut butter and sugar. A jomba is the bundling of foods in fresh green plantain leaves and then cooking them over hot coals or fire.

  • Angolan cuisine – The cuisine of Angola, a country in south-central Africa. Because Angola was a Portuguese colony for centuries, Portuguese cuisine has significantly influenced Angolan cuisine, with many foods imported into Angola by the Portuguese.
  • Cameroonian cuisine – Is one of the most varied in Africa due to its location on the crossroads between the north, west, and centre of the continent; added to this is the profound influence of French food, a legacy of the colonial era.
  • Centrafrican cuisine – Is the cooking traditions, practices, foods and dishes associated with the Central African Republic. The diet is heavy on staple starches such as millet and sorghum, and utilizes a significant amount of vegetables and sauces.
  • Chadian cuisine – The cooking traditions, practices, foods and dishes associated with the Republic of Chad. Chadians utilise a variety of grains, vegetables, fruits and meats. Commonly consumed grains include millet, sorghum and rice as staple foods.
  • Democratic Republic of the Congo cuisine – This cuisine varies widely, representing the food of indigenous people. Cassava is generally the staple food usually eaten with other side dishes.
  • The Republic of the Congo cuisine – Congolese cuisine is one of the most diversified in Central Africa. Combining a mixture of fresh vegetables, poultry, bush meat and sea food, the cuisine is famous for being nutritious and healthy.
  • Equatorial Guinean cuisine – Is a blend of the cuisines of the native tribes, as well as that of Spain (their colonial motherland) and Islamic states such as Morocco. As the wealthiest nation in west Africa, its cuisine incorporates various meats. These include game and bush-meat as well as imports. Fish and chicken are common dishes.
  • Gabonese cuisine is the cooking traditions, practices, foods and dishes associated with the sovereign state of Gabon. French cuisine is prevalent as a notable influence, and in larger cities various French specialties are available. In rural areas, food staples such as cassava, rice and yams are commonly used.
  • Santomean (São Tomé and Príncipe) Cuisine – Some of the most common recipes for food that can be eaten in São Tomé and Príncipe.

Southern African Cuisine

Refer to Southern African Cuisine

Sometimes referred to as “rainbow cuisine” because it’s based on multicultural and various indigenous cuisines. Curried dishes are popular with lemon juice in Southern Africa among people of all ethnic origins; many dishes came to the country with the thousands of Indian laborers brought to South Africa in the nineteenth century. Southern African cuisine can be defined as cookery practiced by indigenous people of South Africa such as the Khoisan and Xhosa, Zulu- and Sotho-speaking people, and settler cookery that emerged from several waves of immigration introduced during the colonial period by people of Indian and Afrikaner and British descent and their slaves and servants.

  • Botswana Cuisine – Unique but also shares some characteristics with other cuisine of Southern Africa. Examples of Botswana food include Pap, Samp, Vetkoek and Mopane worms. A food unique to Botswana includes seswaa, heavily salted mashed-up meat.
  • Comoros Cuisine – The small country of Comoros is situated in the East part of Africa in the Indian Ocean. Over the years this country territories have been repeatedly invaded by numerous other people and groups like those from the coast of Africa, Indonesia, Madagascar and Persian Gulf. Even the Portuguese explorers have visited this country in the early 16th century. All these people left their mark over the Comoros cuisine by bringing with them all kind of ingredients and flavours.
  • Lesothoan Cuisine – Basotho (people of Lesotho) cuisine features African traditions and British influence. Lesotho is surrounded by South Africa and it shares culinary practices with its neighbour.
  • Malagasy Cuisine – Encompasses the many diverse culinary traditions of the Indian Ocean island of Madagascar. Foods eaten in Madagascar reflect the influence of Southeast Asian, African, Indian, Chinese and European migrants that have settled on the island .
  • Cuisine of Malawi – Malawian cuisine includes the foods and culinary practices of Malawi. Tea and fish are popular features of Malawian cuisine. Sugar, coffee, corn, po10247atoes, sorghum, cattle and goats are also important components of the cuisine and economy.
  • Mauritian cuisine
  • Mozambique cuisine – Present for nearly 500 years, the Portuguese greatly impacted the cuisine of Mozambique. Crops such as cassava (a starchy root) and cashew nuts (Mozambique was once the largest producer of these nuts), and pãozinho (pronounced pow-zing-yo; Portuguese-style bread rolls) were brought in by the Portuguese.
  • Namibian cuisine
  • Réunion cuisine
  • Seychellois cuisine
  • South African cuisine –
  • Swaziland cuisine – is largely determined by the seasons and the geographical region. Staple foods in Swaziland include sorghum and maize, often served with goat meat, a very popular livestock there.
  • Zambian cuisine – The Zambian staple diet is based on maize. It is normally eaten as a thick porridge, called Nshima (Nyanja Word), prepared from maize flour commonly known as mealie meal. This may be eaten with a variety of vegetables, beans, meat, fish or sour milk depending on geographical location/origin.
  • Zimbabwean cuisine

West African Cuisine

Refer to West African Cuisine

Refers to many distinct regional and ethnic cuisines in West African nations, a large geographic area with climates ranging from desert to tropical. Some of the region’s indigenous plants, such as hausa groundnuts, pigeon peas and cowpeas provide dietary protein for both people and livestock. Many significant spices, stimulants and medicinal herbs originated in the evergreen and deciduous forests of Western Africa. Ancient Africans domesticated the kola nut and coffee, now used globally in beverages.

  • Beninese cuisine – Known in Africa for its and exotic ingredients and flavourful dishes. Beninese cuisine involves lots of fresh meals served with a variety of sauces. Meat is usually quite expensive, and meals are generally light on meat and generous on vegetable fat.
  • Burkinabé cuisine – The cuisine of Burkina Faso. It’s similar to the cuisines in many parts of West Africa, and is based around staple foods of sorghum, millet, rice, maize, peanuts, potatoes, beans, yams and okra. Grilled meat is common, particularly mutton, goat, beef and fish.
  • Cape Verdean cuisine – The Cape Verde diet is mostly based on fish and staple foods like corn and rice. Vegetables available during most of the year are potatoes, onions, tomatoes, manioc, cabbage, kale, and dried beans. Fruits such as banana and papayas are available year-round, while others like mangos and avocados are seasonal.
  • Gambian cuisine
  • Ghanaian cuisine
  • Guinean cuisine
  • Guinea-Bissauan cuisine
  • Ivorian cuisine
  • Liberian cuisine
  • Malian cuisine
  • Nigerien cuisine – The cuisine of Niger reflects many traditional African cuisines, and a significant amount of spices are used in dishes. Grilled meats, seasonal vegetables, salads and various sauces are some of the foods consumed.
  • Nigerian cuisine –
  • Senegalese cuisine
  • Sierra Leone cuisine
  • Togolese cuisine is the cuisine of the Togolese Republic, a country in Western Africa. It is often a combination of African, French and German cuisines. The cuisine has many sauces and pâtés, many of which are made from eggplant, tomato, spinach and fish.
Refer to Asian Cuisine

Asia is the world’s largest and most populous continent, covers 29.9% of the Earth’s total land area, has approximately 4 billion people and hosts 60% of the world’s current human population. As such, Asia has numerous cuisines. Asian cuisine styles can be broken down into several regional styles that have roots in the peoples and cultures of those regions. The major types can be roughly defined as East Asian with its origins in Imperial China and now encompassing modern Japan and the Korean peninsula; Southeast Asian which encompasses Cambodia, Laos, Thailand, Vietnam, Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, and the Philippines; South Asian which is made up of India, Burma, India, Sri Lanka and Pakistan as well as several other countries in this region of the continent; Central Asian and Middle Eastern.

Central Asian cuisine

Refer to Central Asian Cuisine
  • Kazakh cuisine – Traditional Kazakh cuisine revolves around mutton and horse meat, as well as various milk products. For hundreds of years Kazakhs were herders who raised fat-tailed sheep, Bactrian camels, and horses, relying on these animals for transportation, clothing, and food.
  • Kyrgyz cuisine – Similar in many respects to that of its neighbours, particularly Kazakh cuisine. Traditional Kyrgyz food includes mutton and horse meat, and milk products. The cooking techniques and major ingredients have been strongly influenced by the nation’s nomadic way of life.
  • Mongolian cuisine – Refers to the local culinary traditions of Mongolia and Mongolian styled dishes. The extreme continental climate has affected the traditional diet, so the Mongolian cuisine primarily consists of dairy products, meat, and animal fats. Use of vegetables and spices is limited.
  • Tajik cuisine – The traditional cuisine of Tajikistan, has much in common with Afghan, Iranian, Russian, and Uzbek cuisines. Plov (pita), also called osh, is the national dish in Tajikistan, as in other countries in the region. It consists of chunks of mutton,carrots and rice fried in a large cast-iron cauldron similar to a Dutch oven. Green tea is the national drink. Traditional Tajik meals start with a spread of dried fruit, nuts, halwa, and other sweets arrayed on the table in small dishes, and then progress to soup and meat, before finishing with plov.
  • Turkmen cuisine – The cuisine of Turkmenistan is similar to that of the rest of Central Asia. Plov is the staple, everyday food, which is also served at celebrations. Turkmenistan is perhaps most famous for its melons, especially in the former Soviet Union, where it was once the major supplier. Meals are almost always served with naan, Central Asian flat bread, known locally as “çörek.”
  • Uzbek cuisine – Is influenced by local agriculture, as in most nations. There is a great deal of grain farming in Uzbekistan, so breads and noodles are of importance, and Uzbek cuisine has been characterised as “noodle-rich”. Mutton is a popular variety of meat due to the abundance of sheep in the country and it is a part of various Uzbek dishes.
Refer to East Asian Cuisine

East Asian Cuisine

has evolved with common usage of oils, fats and sauces in the preparation of dishes.

  • Chinese cuisine – Traditional Chinese cuisines include Anhui, Cantonese, Fujian, Hunan, Jiangsu, Shandong, Sichuan, and Zhejiang, all of which are defined and termed per the respective regions within China where they developed. A number of different styles contribute to Chinese cuisine, but perhaps the best known and most influential are the Sichuan, Shandong, Jiangsu and Guangdong cuisines. These styles are distinctive from one another due to factors such as available resources, climate, geography, history, cooking techniques and lifestyle. Many Chinese traditional regional cuisines rely on basic methods of food preservation such as drying, salting, pickling and fermentation.
    • Chinese cuisine originated in what is known as the Eight Great Traditions, though it can be generalized into northern styles that feature oils and strong flavours derived from ingredients such as vinegar and garlic, while southern styles tend to favour fresh ingredients that are lightly prepared. It has become widespread throughout many other parts of the world — from Asia to the Americas, Australia, Western Europe and Southern Africa. In recent years, connoisseurs of Chinese cuisine have also sprouted in Eastern Europe and South Asia. American Chinese cuisine and Canadian Chinese food are popular examples of local varieties. Local ingredients would be adopted while maintaining the style and preparation technique.
    • Great Traditions
      • Eight Great Traditions – Regional cultural differences vary greatly amongst the different regions of China, giving rise to eight main regional cuisines, or Eight Great Traditions (八大菜系, Bā Dà Cài Xì)
        1. Anhui is derived from the native cooking styles of the Huangshan Mountains region in China and is similar to Jiangsu cuisine. It is known for the use of wild herbs, from both land and sea, and simple methods of preparation.
        2. Cantonese comes from Guangdong Province in southern China. Due to Guangdong’s location on the southern coast of China, fresh live seafood is prominent in Cantonese cuisine. Canton has long been a trading port and many imported foods and ingredients are used in Cantonese cuisine. Char siu is a popular way to flavour and prepare pork in Cantonese cuisine.
        3. Fujian – is one of the native Chinese cuisines derived from the native cooking style of the province of Fujian, China. Many diverse seafoods and woodland delicacies are used, including a myriad of fish, shellfish and turtles, along with edible mushrooms and bamboo shoots, provided by the coastal and mountainous regions of Fujian.
        4. Hunan – sometimes called Xiang cuisine, consists of the cuisines of the Xiang River region, Dongting Lake and western Hunan Province, in China. The cuisine is well known for its hot spicy flavour, fresh aroma and deep colour. Common cooking techniques include stewing, frying, pot-roasting, braising, and smoking. Due to the high agricultural output of the region, ingredients for Hunan dishes are many and varied.
        5. Jiangsu is derived from the native cooking styles of the Jiangsu region in China. Food texture is often soft, but not to the point of mushy or falling apart. Other characters include the strict selection of ingredients according to the seasons, emphasis on the matching colour and shape of each dish and emphasis on using soup to improve the flavour.
        6. Shandong in Chinese is more commonly known as Lu cuisine, and is derived from the native cooking styles of Shandong, an eastern coastal province of China. Possibly Shandong’s greatest contribution to Chinese cuisine has been in the area of brewing vinegar. Hundreds of years of experience combined with unique local methods have led to Shandong’s prominence as one of the premier regions for vinegar production in China.
        7. Sichuan is a style of Chinese cuisine originating in the Sichuan Province of southwestern China famed for bold flavours, particularly the pungency and spiciness resulting from liberal use of garlic and chilli peppers, as well as the unique flavour of the Sichuan peppercorn (花椒). Peanuts, sesame paste, and ginger are also prominent ingredients in Sichuan cooking.
        8. Zhejiang is derived from the native cooking styles of the Zhejiang region in China. Food made in the Zhejiang style is not greasy, having instead a fresh and soft flavour with a mellow fragrance.
        • Four Great Traditions – often considered the standouts of Chinese cuisine and due to their influence are proclaimed as the Four Great Traditions (四大菜系, Sì Dà Cài Xì).
          1. Cantonese
          2. Sichuan
          3. Shandong
          4. Huaiyang cuisine – often viewed as the representation of the entire Jiangsu cuisine.
      • Chinese cultural sub-cuisines
      • Chinese cuisines, by region
  • Hong Kong cuisine – is mainly influenced by Cantonese cuisine, non-Cantonese Chinese cuisine (especially Teochew, Hakka, Hokkien and the Jiangsu & Zhejiang), the Western world, Japan, and Southeast Asia, due to Hong Kong’s past as a British colony and long history of being an international city of commerce. Fish balls, wonton noodle, egg waffle, and milk tea are some of the most notable dishes, snacks, and drinks.
  • Macanese cuisine
  • Japanese cuisine – is known for its emphasis on seasonality of food (旬, shun), quality of ingredients and presentation. Japanese regional cuisine includes a vast array of regional specialities known as kyōdo ryōri in Japanese, many of them originating from dishes prepared using local ingredients and traditional recipes. Sushi and sashimi are both part of the cuisine of the island nation. The Michelin Guide has awarded Japanese cities by far the most Michelin stars of any country in the world (for example, Tokyo alone has more Michelin stars than Paris, Hong Kong, New York, LA and London combined).
    • Traditional cooking methods eschew the use of oils and fats, with a focus on featuring the delicate flavours of the natural ingredients. Due to an abundant seafood supply, the traditional Japanese diet featured minimal use of meat; however, modern Japanese cuisine includes an extensive variety of popular meat dishes. Japanese cuisine offers a vast array of regional specialties that use traditional recipes and local ingredients.
    • Okinawan cuisine is the cuisine of the Japanese island of Okinawa. Due to the difference in culture, climate, vegetables and other ingredients between Okinawa and mainland Japan, Okinawan cuisine is very different from Japanese cuisine. The cuisine incorporated influence from Chinese cuisine and Southeast Asian cuisine due to trade. The sweet potato, introduced in Okinawa in 1605, became a staple food there until the beginning of the 20th century. An article about Okinawan food written by Kikkoman stated that Goya (bitter melon) and Nabera (luffa or towel gourd) were “likely” introduced to Okinawa from Southeast Asia. Since Ryūkyū had served as a tributary state to China, Okinawan cooks traveled to Fujian Province to learn how to cook Chinese food; Chinese influence seeped into Okinawa in that manner. The same Kikkoman article states that the method of distillation of awamori likely originated from Siam (Thailand) and traveled to Okinawa during the 15th century. After the lord of the Kagoshima Domain subjugated Ryūkyū, Okinawan cooks traveled to Japan to study Japanese cuisine, causing that influence to seep into Okinawan cuisine.
    • Ainu cuisine
  • Korean cuisine originated from ancient prehistoric traditions in the Korean peninsula, evolving through a complex interaction of environmental, political, and cultural trends. Korean cuisine is largely based upon rice, vegetables, and meats. Traditional Korean meals are noted for the number of side dishes (banchan) that accompany steam-cooked short-grain rice. Kimchi is served often, sometimes at every meal. Commonly used ingredients include sesame oil, doenjang (fermented bean paste), soy sauce, salt, garlic, ginger, pepper flakes, and gochujang (fermented red chilli paste). Korean regional cuisine (Korean: hyangto eumsik, literally “native local foods”), is characterised by local specialties and distinctive styles within Korean cuisine. The divisions reflected historical boundaries of the provinces where these food and culinary traditions were preserved until modern times. Korean barbecue, or gogi gui, refers to the Korean method of grilling beef, pork, chicken, or other types of meat. Such dishes are often prepared at the diner’s table on gas or charcoal grills that are built into the centre of the table itself. It features cooking methods such as sautéing and what is known in the West as barbecue. Strong flavours featuring spices derived from chilli peppers can also be found in dishes such as kimchi.
  • Mongolian cuisine – local culinary traditions of Mongolia and Mongolian styled dishes. The extreme continental climate has affected the traditional diet, so the Mongolian cuisine primarily consists of dairy products, meat, and animal fats. Use of vegetables and spices are limited.
  • Singaporean cuisine – highly influenced by Chinese cuisine from Fujian, Guangdong and Hainan as well as Japanese cuisine. The indigenous Austronesian Malay cuisine is also present.
  • Taiwanese cuisine – .

See main category : https://aussietaste.com.au/category/asian-cuisine/south-asian-cuisine/

South Asian cuisine includes the cuisines from the Indian subcontinent and when included in the definition, also that of Afghanistan. It has roots in South Asia, including practices taken from the Hindu beliefs practiced by the large population found in the region, alongside in some regional cuisines, certain influences from neighbouring regions and cultures, particularly from Muslim cultures of the Middle East and Central Asia. Dishes in this area of the world are known for their use of hot peppers, black pepper, cloves, and other strong spices along with the flavoured butter ghee. Common meats include lamb, goat and chicken; beef is not as common as in western cuisines because the tenets of the Hindu faith prohibit its consumption. Other staples of many of the cuisines include rice, chapati made from wheat and barley, and beans. The cuisine of South Asia has mostly indigenous roots , as well as influences practices taken from foreign origin empires.

Naan, a type of flat bread from the former regions, is a common part of meals in many parts of South Asia.

  • Afghan cuisine – cuisine of the Afghan people, largely based upon Afghanistan’s chief crops: cereals like wheat, maize, barley and rice. Accompanying these staples are dairy products (yoghurt and wheat), various nuts, and native vegetables, as well as fresh and dried fruits. Lamb is the primary meat for many Afghans, although Turkic peoples also eat horse. Afghanistan is also well known for its grapes.
  • Bangladeshi cuisine – is dominated by Bengali cuisine and has been shaped by the diverse history and riverine geography of Bangladesh. The country has a tropical monsoon climate. Rice is the main staple food of Bangladeshi people and it is served with a wide range of curries. Sublime Bangladeshi dishes exhibit strong aromatic flavours; and often include eggs, potatoes, tomatoes and eggplant (aubergines). A variety of spices and herbs, along with mustard oil and ghee, is used in Bangladeshi cooking. The main breads are naan, porota, roti, bakarkhani and luchi. Dal is the second most important staple food which is served with rice/porota/luchi. Fish is a staple in Bangladeshi cuisine, especially freshwater fish, which is a distinctive feature of the country’s gastronomy. Major fish dishes include ilish (hilsa), pabda (butterfish), rui (rohu), pangash (pangas catfish), chitol (clown knifefish), magur (walking catfish), bhetki (barramundi) and tilapia. Meat consumption includes beef, lamb, venison, chicken, duck, squab and koel. Vegetable dishes, either mashed (bhorta), boiled (sabji), or leaf-based (saag), are widely served. Seafood such as lobsters and shrimps are also often prevalent.
  • Bhutanese cuisine employs a lot of red rice (like brown rice in texture, but with a nutty taste, the only variety of rice that grows at high altitudes), buckwheat, and increasingly maize. The diet in the hills also includes chicken, yak meat, dried beef, pork, pork fat, and mutton. When offered food, one says meshu meshu, covering one’s mouth with the hands in refusal according to Bhutanese manners, and then gives in on the second or third offer.
  • Indian cuisine – is characterised by its sophisticated and subtle use of many Indian spices and vegetables, herbs, and fruits grown across India. There is also the widespread practice of vegetarianism across its society. Considered by some to be one of the world’s most diverse cuisines, each family of this cuisine is characterized by a wide assortment of dishes and cooking techniques. As a consequence, Indian cuisine varies from region to region, reflecting the varied demographics of the ethnically diverse Indian subcontinent. India’s religious beliefs and culture has played an influential role in the evolution of its cuisine. However, cuisine across India has also evolved with the Indian subcontinent’s cross-cultural interactions with the neighbouring Middle East, Southeast Asia, East Asia, and Central Asia, making it a unique blend of various cuisines across Asia. The colonial period introduced European cooking styles to India adding to its flexibility and diversity. Indian cuisine has also influenced cuisines across the world, especially those from Southeast Asia. In particular, curry has been widely adopted in cuisines around the world.
  • Maldivian cuisine
  • Nepalese cuisine
    • Newari cuisine
  • Pakistani cuisine
  • Sri Lankan cuisine
Refer to Southeast Asian Cuisine

Southeast Asian cuisine emphasizes lightly prepared dishes with strong aromas, featuring such flavours as citrus, mint, coriander (also known as Chinese parsley), and basil. Ingredients in the region contrast with the ones in the Eastern Asian cuisines, substituting fish sauces for soy sauce and including such ingredients as galangal, tamarind and lemongrass. Cooking methods include stir frying, boiling and steaming.

  • Bruneian cuisine –  is similar to, and heavily influenced by, the cuisine of neighbouring Malaysia, Singapore, and Indonesia, with additional influences from China, India and Arab.
  • Burmese cuisine –  has been influenced greatly by China, India and Thailand. However, Burmese cuisine has retained unique preparation techniques and distinct flavours, and there are many regional variations of “standard” dishes. The Burmese eat with their right hand, forming rice into a small ball with only the fingertips and mixing this with various morsels before popping it into their mouths. The Burmese eat a great variety of vegetables and fruits, and all kinds of meat. A very popular vegetable is the danyin thi, which is usually boiled or roasted and dipped in salt, oil and sometimes, cooked coconut fat.
  • Cambodian cuisine –  is another name for the foods and cuisine widely consumed in Cambodia. The food of Cambodia includes tropical fruits, rice, noodles, drinks, dessert and various soups.
  • Cuisine of East Timor – is the cuisine of one of the newest Southeast Asian countries.
  • Filipino cuisine – has evolved over several centuries from its Austronesian origins to a mixed cuisine with many Hispanic, Chinese, American, and other Asian influences adapted to indigenous ingredients and the local palate. For more information refer to: Filipino cuisine; regional specialties.
    • Kapampangan cuisine is the cuisine native to the Kapampangan people originating from the province of Pampanga, in Central Luzon. One of the best examples of Kapampangan dish is sisig, which is a popular dish across the Philippines.
  • Indonesian cuisine – is diverse, in part because Indonesia is composed of approximately 6,000 populated islands. Many regional cuisines exist, often based upon cultural and foreign influences. For example, Sumatran cuisine often has Middle Eastern and Indian influences, featuring curried meat and vegetables, while Javanese cuisine and Sundanese cuisine are more indigenous.
    • Acehnese cuisine is the cuisine of the Acehnese people of Aceh in most western Sumatra.
    • Balinese cuisine – is the cuisine and culinary traditions of Balinese people from the volcanic island of Bali.
    • Batak cuisine is the cuisine and cooking traditions of Batak ethnic groups, predominantly found in North Sumatra region.
    • Indonesian Arab cuisine is characterised by the mixture of Middle Eastern cuisine with local Indonesian style. Indonesian Arabs brought their legacy of Arab cuisine originally from Hadhramaut, Hejaz and Egypt.
    • Indonesian Chinese cuisine – is characterised by the mixture of Chinese with local Indonesian style. Chinese Indonesians bring their Chinese cuisine legacy.
    • Indonesian Indian cuisine is characterised by the mixture of Indian cuisine with local Indonesian style. Indian Indonesians bring their Chinese cuisine legacy.
    • Javanese cuisine – is the cuisine of Javanese people. In wider sense, Javanese cuisine might also refer to the cuisine of the whole people of Java Island, Indonesia; which also includes Sundanese in West Java, Betawi in Jakarta and Madurese on Madura Island off East Java.
      • Betawi cuisine is rich, diverse and eclectic cuisine of Betawi people in Jakarta due to the Betawi people that create them were composed from numbers of regional immigrants that came from various places in the archipelago.
      • Madurese cuisine is the cuisine tradition of Madurese people in Madura island on the northeastern coast of Java.
      • Sundanese cuisine is the cuisine of Sundanese people of West Java, Indonesia. In Sundanese restaurants, it is common to eat with one’s hands. They usually serve kobokan, a bowl of tap water with a slice of lime for handwashing.
    • Makassar cuisine is the cuisine of the Buginese people and Makassar people in South Sulawesi.
    • Malay cuisine is the cuisine of Malay people with many regional and foreign influences.
    • Manado cuisine – is the cooking tradition of the Minahasan people of North Sulawesi. This cuisine has influences by Eurasian cuisine, especially Dutch cuisine.
    • Padang Food ( Minangkabau cuisine) – is the cuisine of the Minangkabau people of West Sumatra, Indonesia. It is among the most popular food in Maritime Southeast Asia. It is known across Indonesia as masakan Padang.
    • Palembang cuisine is the cuisine of the Palembang people in South Sumatra.
    • Peranakan cuisine – combines Chinese, Malay, Javanese and other influences into a unique blend.
  • Laotian cuisine – is the cuisine of Laos, which is distinct from other Southeast Asian cuisines. Laos shares borders with neighbouring countries and as a result, Lao cuisine has strongly influenced the neighbouring cuisine of Northeastern Thailand (Isan) and some Lao culinary influences have also reached Cambodia and Northern Thailand (Lanna).
  • Malaysian cuisine – reflects the multicultural aspects of Malaysia. Malaysia is an amalgamation of three major races, Malay, Chinese and Indian, as well as a myriad of ethnic groups from Sabah and Sarawak. The potpourri is enriched further with the influence of the Thai from the north, Indonesian from the south, Filipino from the east, and British, Dutch and Portuguese through hundred years of colonization.
    • Malay cuisine – is the cuisine of Malay people with many regional and foreign influences. For examples, cuisine of Johor often has Middle Eastern and Javanese influences while cuisine of Kelantan often has Thai influences.
    • Malaysian Chinese cuisine is characterised by the mixture of Chinese with local ingredients.
    • Malaysian Indian cuisine is characterised by the mixture of Indian with local ingredients.
    • Sarawakian cuisine is the cuisine of Sarawak, Malaysia
    • Sabahan cuisine is the cuisine of Sabah, Malaysia with influences from Filipino cuisine and Indonesian cuisine
    • Peranakan cuisine – combines Chinese, Malay and other influences into a unique blend. Peranakan in Penang often has Thai influences while Melaka and Singapore often has Indonesian influences.
    • Eurasian cuisine combines Kristang, Dutch, British,Malay and other influences into a unique blend, predominantly found in Melaka
  • Singaporean cuisine – is similar to, and heavily influenced by the cuisine of neighbouring Malaysia, as a product of centuries of cultural interaction owing to Singapore’s strategic location. the predominant Chinese, Indonesian, Indian and Western traditions (particularly English) since the founding of Singapore by the British in the 19th century.
  • Thai cuisine – can be described as four regional cuisines corresponding to the four main regions of the country: Northern, Northeastern (or Isan), Central, and Southern. A fifth cuisine is Thai cuisine, based on the palace cuisine of the Ayutthaya kingdom (1351–1767 CE), which was influential upon the cuisine of the Central Thai plains. Each cuisine has similarities to foods and cuisines in neighbouring countries and regions, including the Cuisine of Burma, Yunnan cuisine, Lao cuisine, Cambodian cuisine and Malaysian cuisine.
  • Vietnamese cuisine – a style of cooking derived from Vietnam with Chinese influence. Fish sauce, soy sauce, rice, fresh herbs, fruits and vegetables are commonly used. Vietnamese recipes utilize a diverse range of herbs, including lemongrass, mint, Vietnamese mint, long coriander and Thai basil leaves.
Refer to West Asian Cuisine

West Asian cuisine, is the cuisine of the various countries and peoples of West Asia. Despite their similarities, there are considerable differences in climate and culture, so the term is not definitive. The cuisine of the region is diverse while having a degree of homogeneity. Many West Asian dishes are made with a paste called tahini. Tahini is a sesame paste made with hulled seeds, unlike its East Asian counterpart. It is used to make such popular meze, or appetizers, as baba ghanoush and hummus along with pungent dipping sauces served with falafel, keftes or kofta and vegetables. Hummus is made from chickpeas, which are staples of the diet. Some commonly used ingredients include olives and olive oil, lamb, pitas, honey, sesame seeds, dates, sumac, chickpeas, mint and parsley. Some popular dishes include kibbeh and shawarma.

  • Arab cuisine of the Persian Gulf – Arab cuisine of the Persian Gulf today is the result of combination of diverse cuisines, incorporating Levantine, Indian, Chinese, and Persian cooking styles, and many items not originally indigenous to the Persian Gulf region, which were most probably imported on the dhows and the caravans.
  • Assyrian cuisine – is similar to other Middle Eastern cuisines. It is rich in grains, meat, tomato, and potato. Rice is usually served with every meal accompanied by a stew which is typically poured over the rice. Tea is typically consumed at all times of the day with or without meals alone or as a social drink. Cheese, crackers, biscuits, baklawa, or other snacks are often served alongside the tea as appetisers. Dietary restrictions may apply during special holidays in which certain types of foods may not be consumed; often meaning animal-derived.
  • Bahraini cuisine – refers to the cuisine of The Kingdom of Bahrain, a small island state near the western shores of the Persian Gulf. Bahrain produces only a small amount of its food requirements due to limited land space, and imports much of its food. Its primary crops are dates, bananas, citrus fruits, pomegranates, mangoes, cucumbers and tomatoes.
  • Cypriot cuisine – is the cuisine of Cyprus and can be described as a blend of Greek and Turkish cuisines. Greek Cypriot cuisine is another regional Greek cuisine along with Cretan, Ionian, or Attic.
  • Emirati cuisine – Emirati cuisine has changed over the years, recipes changing and the food of the UAE taking on a distinct identity with unique characteristics influenced by travellers and interactions with other nations.
  • Iranian cuisine – Persian cuisine is diverse, with each province featuring dishes, culinary traditions and styles distinct to its region.
    • Azerbaijani cuisine – The Azerbaijani people, living primarily in the region of Azerbaijan in northwestern Iran, have a number of local dishes that include Bonab kabab (Binab kababi), the dumpling dish of joshpara (düşbərə), a dish identical to the Scottish haggis that is called jaqur-baqur, a variety of ash called kələcoş, a variation of qeyme that is called piçaq, and a variation of kufte that is called Təbriz küftəsi. There is also the traditional pastry of shekerbura (şəkərbura), which is identical to Khorasan’s shekarpare (šekarpare). Despite the influences from Turkey, the food tastes noticeably Iranian, though also with its own unique features, such as using more lemon juice and butter than other groups of Iranians.
    • Baluchi cuisine – Meat and dates are the main ingredients in the cuisine of Iran’s southeastern region of Baluchistan. Rice is primarily cultivated in the region of Makran. Foods that are specific to the Iranian region of Baluchistan include tanurche (taronca; tanurce), a local variety of grilled meat that is prepared in a tanur, doogh-pa, a type of khoresh that contains doogh, and tabahag (tabâhag), that is meat prepared with pomegranate powder. Baluchi cuisine also includes several date-based dishes, as well as various types of bread.
    • Caspian (Mazanderani) cuisine – The southern coast of the Caspian Sea, which consists of the Iranian provinces of Gilan, Mazanderan, and Golestan, has a fertile environment that is also reflected in its cuisine. Kateh is a method of cooking rice that originates from this region. This type of rice dish is also eaten there as a breakfast meal, either heated with milk and jam or cold with cheese and garlic. Caviar fish roes also hail from this region, and are typically served with eggs in frittatas and omelettes. Local cookies (koluce) of the region are also popular.
    • Kurdish cuisine – The region of Kurdistan in western Iran is home to a variety of local āsh, pilaf, and stew dishes. Some local Kurdish dishes include a traditional grilled rib meat that is called dande kabāb, a type of khoresh made of chives that is called xoreš-e tare, and a dish of rice and baked apple that is called sib polow.
    • Southern Iranian cuisine – The food of southern Iran is typically spicy. Mahyawa is a tangy sauce made of fermented fish in this region. Being a coastal region, Khuzestan’s cuisine includes especially seafood, as well as some unique local beverages. In southern Khuzestan, there is also a variation of kufte that is known as kibbeh and is made of ground meat, cracked wheat, different types of herbs and vegetables and various spices.
  • Iraqi cuisine or Mesopotamian cuisine, has a long history going back some 10,000 years – to the Sumerians, Babylonians and Assyrians. Tablets found in ancient ruins in Iraq show recipes prepared in the temples during religious festivals – the first cookbooks in the world.
    • Kurdish cuisine consists of a wide variety of foods prepared by the Kurdish people that have got many traditions from their homeland, Kurdistan.
  • Kuwaiti cuisine – the national dish of Kuwait known as machboos (Arabic: مكبوس‎) consists mainly of mutton or chicken placed over or mixed in a large mass of well-cooked and prepared rice.
  • Omani cuisine – is generally very simple, with the aid of many spices and marinades to complete a dish, which usually consists of chicken, fish, and mutton. Unlike many other Asian nations, Omani cuisine is not spicy, and varies between regions.
  • Qatari cuisine
  • Saudi Arabian cuisine – Food staples include lamb, grilled chicken, falafel (deep-fried chickpea balls), shawarma (spit-cooked sliced lamb), mutabbaq and Ful medames. Arabic unleavened bread, or khobz (خبز), is eaten with almost all meals, and is often used as an edible utensil to scoop foods.
    • Kabsa is considered by many as Saudi Arabia’s national dish.
  • Turkish cuisine is largely the heritage of Ottoman cuisine, which can be described as a fusion and refinement of Central Asian, West Asian and Balkan cuisines. Turkish cuisine has in turn influenced those and other neighbouring cuisines, including that of western Europe.
  • Yemeni cuisine
  • Levantine cuisine – traditional cuisine of Ottoman Syria, now usually called the Levant, known in Arabic as the Bilad ash-Sham. This region shared many culinary traditions under the Ottoman Empire which continue to be influential today. It covers the modern states of Syria, Lebanon, Jordan, Israel, Northern Iraq, northwest Iraq (the province of Mosul), and parts of southern Turkey near Adana, Gaziantep, Antakya and Mardin.
    • Israeli cuisine – comprises a mixture of dishes—from those brought back to Israel by Jews from the Diaspora, those from Jews who remained in the region, and those adopted from surrounding Arab inhabitants. Since before the establishment of the modern State of Israel in 1948, and particularly since the late 1970s, an Israeli fusion cuisine has developed.
    • Jewish cuisine — The cuisine of the Jewish diaspora.
    • Jordanian cuisine – is well known for being simple and unpretentious, which doesn’t prevent some of its best dishes from being very elaborate and tasty. It is also well known for being very healthy: its main ingredients are vegetables, legumes, fruits, yogurt, dried fruit and meat such as lamb and chicken.
    • Lebanese cuisine – includes an abundance of starches, fruits, vegetables, fresh fish and seafood; animal fats are consumed sparingly. Poultry is eaten more often than red meat, and when red meat is eaten it is usually lamb on the coast and goat meat in the mountain regions.
    • Syrian cuisine is a diffusion of the cultures of civilizations that settled in Syria, particularly during and after the Islamic era beginning with the Arab Umayyad conquest, then the eventual Persian-influenced Abbasids and ending with the strong influences of Turkish cuisine, resulting from the coming of the Ottoman Turks.
  • South Caucasus cuisine is the cuisine of the various countries and peoples of the South Caucasus, also known as Transcaucasia.
    • Armenian cuisine
    • Azerbaijani cuisine – The Azerbaijani people, living primarily in the region of Azerbaijan in northwestern Iran, have a number of local dishes that include Bonab kabab (Binab kababi), the dumpling dish of joshpara (düşbərə), a dish identical to the Scottish haggis that is called jaqur-baqur, a variety of ash called kələcoş, a variation of qeyme that is called piçaq, and a variation of kufte that is called Təbriz küftəsi. There is also the traditional pastry of shekerbura (şəkərbura), which is identical to Khorasan’s shekarpare (šekarpare). Despite the influences from Turkey, the food tastes noticeably Iranian, though also with its own unique features, such as using more lemon juice and butter than other groups of Iranians.
    • Georgian cuisine
Refer to European cuisine

European cuisine is a generalised term collectively referring to the cuisines of Europe and other Western countries. European cuisine or Western cuisine includes that of Europe including (depending on the definition) that of Russia, as well as non-indigenous cuisines of North America, Australasia, Oceania, and Latin America, which derive substantial influence from European settlers in those regions. The term is used by East Asians to contrast with Asian styles of cooking. The cuisines of Western countries are diverse by themselves, although there are common characteristics that distinguishes Western cooking from cuisines of Asian countries and others. Compared with traditional cooking of Asian countries, for example, meat is more prominent and substantial in serving-size. Wheat-flour bread has long been the most common sources of starch in this cuisine, along with pasta,dumplings and pastries, although the potato has become a major starch plant in the diet of Europeans and their diaspora since the European colonisation of the Americas.

  • Austrian cuisine is a style of cuisine native to Austria and composed of influences from throughout the former Austro-Hungarian Empire. Regional influences from Italy, Hungary, Germany and the Balkans have had an effect on Austrian cooking, and in turn this fusion of styles was influential throughout the Empire.
  • Viennese cuisine
  • Czech cuisine has both influenced and been influenced by the cuisines of surrounding countries. Many of the fine cakes and pastries that are popular in Central Europe originated in the Czech lands. Czech cuisine is marked by a strong emphasis on meat dishes. Pork is quite common, and beef and chicken are also popular.
  • German cuisine
  • Baden cuisine
  • Bavarian cuisine
  • Brandenburg cuisine
  • Franconian cuisine
  • Hamburg cuisine
  • Hessian cuisine
  • Lower Saxon cuisine
  • Mecklenburg cuisine
  • Palatine cuisine
  • Pomeranian cuisine
  • Rhenish-Hessian cuisine
  • Saxon cuisine
  • Schleswig-Holstein cuisine
  • Swabian cuisine
  • Hungarian cuisine is the cuisine characteristic of the nation of Hungary and its primary ethnic group, the Magyars. Traditional Hungarian dishes are primarily based on meats, seasonal vegetables, fruits, fresh bread, cheeses and honey. Recipes are based on centuries-old traditions of spicing and preparation methods.
  • Liechtensteiner cuisine
  • Polish cuisine is the cuisine characteristic of the nation of Poland and its primary ethnic group, the Poles. Traditional Polish dishes are based on meats, vegetables, fruits, breads, cheeses, sausages, milk, etc. The most typical ingredients used in Polish cuisine are sauerkraut, paprika, beetroot, cucumbers (gherkins), sour cream, kohlrabi, mushrooms, sausages and smoked sausage. A meal owes it taste to the herbs and spices used; such as marjoram, dill, caraway seeds, parsley, or pepper. The most popular desserts are cakes and pastries.
  • Silesian cuisine
  • Slovak cuisine varies slightly, though sometimes dramatically, from region to region, and was influenced by the traditional cuisine of its neighbors. The origins of traditional Slovak cuisine can be traced to times when the majority of the population lived in villages, in self-sustenance, with very limited food imports and exports and with no modern means of food preservation or processing. This gave rise to a cuisine heavily dependent on a number of staple foods that could stand the hot summers and cold winters, including wheat, potatoes, milk and milk products, pork meat, sauerkraut and onion. To a lesser degree beef, poultry, lamb and goat, eggs, a few other local vegetables, fruit and wild mushrooms were traditionally eaten.
  • Slovenian cuisine there are many distinct cuisines in a country, whose main distinguishing feature is a great variety and diversity of land formation, climate, wind movements, humidity, terrain and history. Slovenia is a borderland country, surrounded by Italy, Austria, Hungary, and Croatia, with established and distinct national cuisines. There is a wide variety of meats in different parts of Slovenia. Dandelion) is Slovenian wild lettuce, which has been gathered in the fields for centuries.
See also: Eastern European cuisine

  • Belarusian Cuisine shares the same roots with cuisines of other Eastern and Northern European countries, basing predominantly on meat and various vegetables typical for the region.
  • Moldovan Cuisine – Moldova’s fertile soil (chernozem) produces plentiful grapes, fruits, vegetables, cereals, meat and milk products, all of which have found their uses in the national cuisine. The fertile black soil combined with the use of traditional agricultural methods permits growing a wide range of ecologically clean foods in Moldova.
  • Russian Cuisine – Is diverse, as Russia is the largest country in the world. Russia’s great expansions of territory, influence, and interest during the 16th–18th centuries brought more refined foods and culinary techniques, as well as one of the most refined food countries in the world. It was during this period that smoked meats and fish, pastry cooking, salads and green vegetables, chocolate, ice cream, wine, and liquor were imported from abroad. At least for the urban aristocracy and provincial gentry, this opened the doors for the creative integration of these new foodstuffs with traditional Russian dishes. The result is extremely varied in technique, seasoning, and combination. Traditional and common Russian foods include:
  • Tatar Cuisine –
  • Mordovian Cuisine –
  • Soviet Cuisine –
  • Ukrainian Cuisine – Has significant diversity, historical traditions and is influenced by Russian, Turkish and Polish cuisines. Common foods used include meats, vegetables, mushrooms, fruits, berries and herbs. In Ukraine, bread is a staple food, there are many different types of bread, and Ukraine is sometimes referred to as the “breadbasket of Europe”. Pickled vegetables are utilised, particularly when fresh vegetables aren’t in season. There are about 30 varieties of Ukrainian Borsch soup, a common dish that often includes meat.
  • Crimean Tatar Cuisine – Is primarily the cuisine of the Crimean Tatars, who live on the Crimean Peninsula in Ukraine. The traditional cuisine of the Crimean Tatars derives basically from the same roots as the cuisine of the Volga Tatars, although unlike the Volga Tatars they do not eat horse meat and do not drink mare’s milk (kymyz). However, the Crimean Tatars adopted many Uzbek dishes during their exile in Central Asia since 1944, and these dishes have been absorbed into Crimean Tatar national cuisine after their return to Crimea.
  • Caucasian Cuisine – cuisines of The Caucasus
  • Armenian Cuisine – Includes the foods and cooking techniques of the Armenian people, the Armenian diaspora and traditional Armenian foods and dishes. The cuisine reflects the history and geography where Armenians have lived as well as incorporating outside influences. The cuisine also reflects the traditional crops and animals grown and raised in areas populated by Armenians.
  • Azerbaijani Cuisine – The Azerbaijani people, living primarily in the region of Azerbaijan in northwestern Iran, have a number of local dishes that include Bonab kabab (Binab kababi), the dumpling dish of joshpara (düşbərə), a dish identical to the Scottish haggis that is called jaqur-baqur, a variety of ash called kələcoş, a variation of qeyme that is called piçaq, and a variation of kufte that is called Təbriz küftəsi. There is also the traditional pastry of shekerbura (şəkərbura), which is identical to Khorasan’s shekarpare (šekarpare). Despite the influences from Turkey, the food tastes noticeably Iranian, though also with its own unique features, such as using more lemon juice and butter than other groups of Iranians.
  • Georgian Cuisine – Refers to the cooking styles and dishes with origins in the nation of Georgia and prepared by Georgian people around the world. The Georgian cuisine is specific to the country, but also contains some influences from the Middle Eastern and European culinary traditions.
  • Baltic cuisines
  • Estonian cuisine
  • Latvian cuisine
  • Lithuanian cuisine
  • Cuisines of the Islands of the North Atlantic (IONA)
  • Irish cuisine – a style of cooking originating from Ireland or developed by Irish people. It evolved from centuries of social and political change. The cuisine takes its influence from the crops grown and animals farmed in its temperate climate. The introduction of the potato in the second half of the 16th century heavily influenced Ireland’s cuisine thereafter. Representative Irish dishes are Irish stew, bacon and cabbage, boxty, coddle, and colcannon.
  • British cuisine – British cuisine is the specific set of cooking traditions and practices associated with the United Kingdom. British cuisine has been described as “unfussy dishes made with quality local ingredients, matched with simple sauces to accentuate flavour, rather than disguise it.” However, British cuisine has absorbed the cultural influence of those that have settled in Britain, producing hybrid dishes, such as the Anglo-Indian chicken tikka masala.”
  • Scandinavian cuisines – It’s a wide variety of fish and meats, like pork and poultry, as well as beets, potatoes, cucumbers, broiled, baked, and smoked apples, and much more food. Just like Scandinavian design, the Scandinavian cuisine sticks to basics.
  • Faroese cuisine – Important parts of Faroese cuisine are lamb and fish, owing to the proximity to the ocean. Traditional foods from the Faroe Islands include skerpikjøt (a type of dried mutton), seafood, whale meat, blubber, garnatálg, Faroese puffins, potatoes and few fresh vegetables.
  • Greenlandic cuisine
  • Mediterranean Cuisine – see Mediterranean cuisine tab.
  • Cypriot cuisine – is the cuisine of Cyprus and can be described as a blend of Greek and Turkish cuisines. Greek Cypriot cuisine is another regional Greek cuisine along with Cretan, Ionian, or Attic.
  • Cuisines of the Balkans
  • Albanian cuisine is uniquely influenced by Turkish, Greek, and Italian cuisines. Every region in Albania has its own unique dishes. Albanian cuisine is characterized by the use of various Mediterranean herbs such as oregano, black pepper, mint, basilico, rosemary and more in cooking meat and fish.
  • Bosnian cuisine
  • Bulgarian cuisine is a representative of the cuisine of Southeastern Europe. Essentially South Slavic, it shares characteristics with other Balkans cuisines. Owing to the relatively warm climate and diverse geography affording excellent growth conditions for a variety of vegetables, herbs and fruits, Bulgarian cuisine is diverse.
  • Croatian cuisine
  • Greek cuisine
  • Macedonian cuisine (Greek)
  • Kosovan cuisine
  • Macedonian cuisine
  • Montenegrin cuisine
  • Romanian cuisine is a diverse blend of different dishes from several traditions with which it has come into contact, but it also maintains its own character. It has been greatly influenced by Ottoman cuisine.
  • Serbian cuisine
  • Turkish cuisine is largely the heritage of Ottoman cuisine, which can be described as a fusion and refinement of Central Asian, Middle Eastern, Eastern European, Armenian and Balkan cuisines.
  • Northern Cypriot cuisine
  • Cuisines of the Italian Peninsula
  • Italian cuisine – presents popular dishes like Pizza, Pasta, Lasagne, Mozzarella and other well-known food. Italian cuisine has been influenced by Ancient Greek, Ancient Roman, Etruscan cuisines and dates back to 4th century BCE. It maintains strong regional diversity and it uses a vast variety of ingredients, mostly because of the political divisions in Italian history and different climate and resources in the country. Most of the dishes are simple to prepare and not expensive, which is one of the reason it is very popular around the world.
  • Regional Cuisines – in Italian cuisine, each area has its own specialties, primarily at the regional level, but also at provincial levels.[27][28][29] The cuisine has an abundance of differences in taste, and is known to be one of the most popular in the world,[30] with influences abroad.[31] The differences can derive from a bordering country (such as France or Austria), whether a region is close to the sea or the mountains, and economics. Italian cuisine is also seasonal, often incorporating fresh produce. Italian regional cuisines include:
    Abruzzo and Molise

    Basilicatan

    Calabrian

    Emilia-Romagnan

    Friuli-Venezia Giulia

    Lazio

    Ligurian

    Cuisine of Lombardy

    Marche

    Neapolitan cuisine, Campania

    Piedmontese

    Puglian

    Sardinian cuisine

    Sicilian cuisine

    Trentino-Alto Adige/South Tyrol

    Tuscan cuisine

    Umbrian

    Valle d’Aostan

    Venetian cuisine

  • Maltese cuisine
  • Sammarinese cuisine
  • Cuisines of the Iberian Peninsula
  • Gibraltarian cuisine
  • Portuguese cuisine
  • Spanish cuisine has a variety of dishes including thousands of recipes and flavors arising from Spain’s extensive history with many cultural influences, and variations in geography and climate. It is heavily influenced by seafood available from the waters that surround the country, and reflects the country’s deep maritime roots. Spanish wine is a significant part of Spanish cuisine. Regional Spanish cuisines include:
    Andalusian cuisine

    Asturian cuisine

    Aragonese cuisine

    Balearic cuisine

    Basque cuisine

    Canarian cuisine

    Cantabrian cuisine

    Castilian-Leonese cuisine

    Castilian-Manchego cuisine

    Cuisine of the Community of Madrid

    Catalan cuisine (includes Andorran cuisine)

    Extremaduran cuisine

    Galician cuisine

    Leonese cuisine

    Valencian cuisine

    Cuisine of Minorca

  • Austrian cuisine is a style of cuisine native to Austria and composed of influences from throughout the former Austro-Hungarian Empire. Regional influences from Italy, Hungary, Germany and the Balkans have had an effect on Austrian cooking, and in turn this fusion of styles was influential throughout the Empire.
  • Belgian cuisine
  • Dutch cuisine
  • French cuisine
    • Haute cuisine
    • Cuisine classique
    • Nouvelle cuisine
  • German cuisine
  • Liechtensteiner cuisine
  • Luxembourgian cuisine
  • Swiss cuisine
Regional cuisines
  • Regional Dutch cuisines can be distinguished by three geographic regions in The Netherlands, northeastern, western and southern cuisine.
  • French regional cuisine is characterised by its extreme diversity and style. Traditionally, each region of France has its own distinctive cuisine. French cuisine styles include Nouvelle cuisine, Haute cuisine and Cuisine classique. In November 2010 the French gastronomy was added by UNESCO to its lists of the world’s “intangible cultural heritage”.
  • German regional cuisine can be divided into Bavarian cuisine (Southern Germany), Lower Saxon cuisine (Northern Germany), Thuringian (Central Germany) and Saxony-Anhalt (Central Germany).
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Main article: Middle Eastern cuisine

Middle Eastern, or West Asian cuisine is the cuisine of the various countries and peoples of the Middle East (Western Asia). The cuisine of the region is diverse while having a degree of homogeneity. Many Middle Eastern dishes are made with a paste called tahini. Tahini is a sesame paste made with hulled seeds, unlike its Asian counterpart. It is used to make such popular meze, or appetisers, as baba ghanoush and hummus along with pungent dipping sauces served with falafel,keftes or kofta and vegetables. Hummus is made from chickpeas, which are staples of the diet. Some commonly used ingredients include olives and olive oil, lamb,pitas,honey, sesame seeds,dates,sumac,chickpeas,mint and parsley. Some popular dishes include kibbeh and shawarma.

By region

  • Arab cuisine of the Persian Gulf– Arab cuisine of the Persian Gulf today is the result of combination of diverse cuisines, incorporating Lebanese, Indian, Chinese, and Persian cooking styles, and many items not originally indigenous to the Persian Gulf region, which were most probably imported on the dhows and the caravans.
  • Omani cuisine – Is generally very simple, with the aid of many spices and marinades to complete a dish, which usually consists of chicken, fish, and mutton. Unlike many other Asian nations, Omani cuisine is not spicy, and varies between regions.
  • Afghan cuisine
  • Armenian cuisine
  • Assyrian cuisine – is similar to other Middle Eastern cuisines. It is rich in grains, meat, tomato, and potato. Rice is usually served with every meal accompanied by a stew which is typically poured over the rice. Tea is typically consumed at all times of the day with or without meals alone or as a social drink. Cheese, crackers, biscuits, baklawa, or other snacks are often served alongside the tea as appetisers. Dietary restrictions may apply during special holidays in which certain types of foods may not be consumed; often meaning animal-derived.
  • Bahraini cuisine
  • Cypriot cuisine – is the cuisine of Cyprus and can be described as a blend of Greek and Turkish cuisines. Greek Cypriot cuisine is another regional Greek cuisine along with Cretan, Ionian, or Attic.
  • Emirati cuisine – Emirati cuisine has changed over the years, recipes changing and the food of the UAE taking on a distinct identity with unique characteristics influenced by travellers and interactions with other nations.
  • Georgian cuisine
  • Iranian cuisine
    • Azerbaijani cuisine – The Azerbaijani people, living primarily in the region of Azerbaijan in northwestern Iran, have a number of local dishes that include Bonab kabab (Binab kababi), the dumpling dish of joshpara (düşbərə), a dish identical to the Scottish haggis that is called jaqur-baqur, a variety of ash called kələcoş, a variation of qeyme that is called piçaq, and a variation of kufte that is called Təbriz küftəsi. There is also the traditional pastry of shekerbura (şəkərbura), which is identical to Khorasan’s shekarpare (šekarpare). Despite the influences from Turkey, the food tastes noticeably Iranian, though also with its own unique features, such as using more lemon juice and butter than other groups of Iranians.
    • Baluchi cuisine – Meat and dates are the main ingredients in the cuisine of Iran’s southeastern region of Baluchistan. Rice is primarily cultivated in the region of Makran. Foods that are specific to the Iranian region of Baluchistan include tanurche (taronca; tanurce), a local variety of grilled meat that is prepared in a tanur, doogh-pa, a type of khoresh that contains doogh, and tabahag (tabâhag), that is meat prepared with pomegranate powder. Baluchi cuisine also includes several date-based dishes, as well as various types of bread.
    • Caspian (Mazanderani) cuisine – The southern coast of the Caspian Sea, which consists of the Iranian provinces of Gilan, Mazanderan, and Golestan, has a fertile environment that is also reflected in its cuisine. Kateh is a method of cooking rice that originates from this region. This type of rice dish is also eaten there as a breakfast meal, either heated with milk and jam or cold with cheese and garlic. Caviar fish roes also hail from this region, and are typically served with eggs in frittatas and omelettes. Local cookies (koluce) of the region are also popular.
    • Kurdish cuisine – The region of Kurdistan in western Iran is home to a variety of local āsh, pilaf, and stew dishes. Some local Kurdish dishes include a traditional grilled rib meat that is called dande kabāb, a type of khoresh made of chives that is called xoreš-e tare, and a dish of rice and baked apple that is called sib polow.
    • Southern Iranian cuisine – The food of southern Iran is typically spicy. Mahyawa is a tangy sauce made of fermented fish in this region. Being a coastal region, Khuzestan’s cuisine includes especially seafood, as well as some unique local beverages. In southern Khuzestan, there is also a variation of kufte that is known as kibbeh and is made of ground meat, cracked wheat, different types of herbs and vegetables and various spices.
    • Turkmen cuisine – Iran’s Turkmen people are predominantly centered in the Iranian provinces of Golestan and North Khorasan. Chegderme is a Turkmen dish made of rice, meat, and tomato paste.
  • Iraqi cuisine
  • Israeli cuisine – Israeli cuisine has adopted, and continues to adapt, elements of various styles of Jewish cuisine, particularly the Mizrahi, Sephardic, and Ashkenazi styles of cooking. It incorporates many foods traditionally eaten in Middle Eastern and Mediterranean cuisines, and foods such as falafel, hummus, shakshouka, couscous, and za’atar are now thought to be synonymous with Israeli cuisine.
  • Indian cuisine
  • Jordanian cuisine – is well known for being simple and unpretentious, which doesn’t prevent some of its best dishes from being very elaborate and tasty. It is also well known for being very healthy: its main ingredients are vegetables, legumes, fruits, yoghurt, dried fruit and meat such as lamb and chicken.
  • Kuwaiti cuisine
  • Lebanese cuisine – One of the freshest and most delicious on the planet. Lamb is the meat of choice and appears in many dishes, including kafta, in which minced lamb is rolled into sausage shapes and cooked on the barbecue or in the oven. Generous amounts of olive oil, garlic, lemons are also essential flavours in the Lebanese diet.
  • Pakistani cuisine
  • Palestinian cuisine
  • Saudi Arabian cuisine
  • Syrian cuisine –
  • Turkish cuisine
  • Yemeni cuisine

See also: Cuisine of the Americas

Canada

Refer to : Canadian cuisine

Canadian cuisine varies widely from depending on the regions of the nation. The former Canadian prime minister Joe Clark has been paraphrased to have noted: “Canada has a cuisine of cuisines. Not a stew pot, but a smorgasbord.” The three earliest cuisines of Canada have First Nations, English, and French roots, with the traditional cuisine of English Canada closely related to British and American cuisine, while the traditional cuisine of French Canada has evolved from French cuisine and the winter provisions of fur traders. With subsequent waves of immigration in the 18th and 19th century from Central, Southern, and Eastern Europe, and also from China, the regional cuisines were subsequently augmented. Common contenders as the Canadian national food include Poutine and Butter tarts.
Canada is the world’s largest producer of maple syrup, and the sugar maple’s leaf has come to symbolise Canada and is depicted on the country’s flag.

By region

        • Cuisine of Quebec – Quebec is most famous for its tourtières(meat pies), pea soup, baked beans, cretons, ham dishes, maple desserts such as Pouding chômeurand “tire Ste-Catherine” (St. Catherine’s Taffy).
        • Canadian Chinese cuisine
        • Cuisine of Toronto reflects Toronto’s size and multicultural diversity.
        • Cuisine of the Maritime Provinces- the Maritimes region of Canada has some unique foods; the region has foodstuffs that are indigenous the area and cultural phenomena has brought non-native foods to the area. The region is in Eastern Canada, and comprises three provinces: New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and Prince Edward Island. On the Atlantic coast, the Maritimes are a subregion of Atlantic Canada. Much of what is local food or regional cuisine there could be found in the foods of the Native Peoples or indigenous people, sometimes called Indians, whose cultures preceded those to be found in the Maritimes today.

Caribbean

See Caribbaean Cuisine

Greenland

Greenlandic cuisine is traditionally based on meat from marine mammals, game, birds, and fish, and normally contains high levels of protein. Since colonisation and the arrival of international trade, the cuisine has been increasingly influenced by Danish and Canadian cuisine. Since the majority of Greenland is covered by permanent glaciers, the sea is the source of most domestically sourced food. Seafood dishes include various fishes (often smoked), mussels, and shrimp. Ammassat or capelin, a fish in the salmon family is commonly consumed. The national dish of Greenland is suaasat, a traditional Greenlandic soup. It is often made from seal, or from whale, reindeer, or sea birds. The soup often includes onions and potatoes, and is simply seasoned with salt and pepper, or bay leaf. The soup is often thickened with rice, or by soaking barley in the water overnight so that the starches leach into the water. During the summer, meals are often eaten outdoors.

Mexico

Main article: Mexican cuisine
See also: Maya cuisine

Mexican food varies by region because of Mexico’s large size and diversity, different climates and geography, ethnic differences among the indigenous inhabitants and because different populations were influenced by the Spaniards in varying degrees. The north of Mexico is known for its beef, goat and ostrich production and meat dishes, in particular the well-known arrachera cut. The food staples of Mexican cuisine are typically corn and beans. Corn is used to make masa, a dough for tamales, tortillas, gorditas, and many other corn-based foods. Corn is also eaten fresh, as corn on the cob and as a component of a number of dishes. Squash and chilli peppers also prominent in Mexican cuisine. Honey is an important ingredient in many Mexican dishes, such as the rosca de miel, a bundt-like cake, and in beverages such as balché. Mexican cuisine was added by UNESCO to its lists of the world’s “Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity”.

By region

  • Chiapas – Similar to other regions in Mexico, corn is a dietary staple and other indigenous foods remain strong in the cuisine as well. Along with a chile called simojovel, used nowhere else in the country, the cuisine is also distinguished by the use of herbs, such as chipilín and hierba santa.
  • Mexico City – The main feature of Mexico City cooking is that it has been influenced by those of the other regions of Mexico, as well as a number of foreign influences.
  • Northern Mexico – The foods eaten in what is now the north of Mexico have differed from those in the south since the pre-Hispanic era. Here, the indigenous people were hunter-gatherers with limited agriculture and settlements because of the arid land.
  • Oaxaca – The cooking of Oaxaca remained more intact after the conquest, as the Spanish took the area with less fighting and less disruption of the economy and food production systems.
  • Veracruz – The cuisine of Veracruz is a mix of indigenous, Afro-Mexican and Spanish. The indigenous contribution is in the use of corn as a staple, as well as vanilla (native to the state) and herbs called acuyo and hoja santa. It is also supplemented by a wide variety of tropical fruits, such as papaya, mamey and zapote, along with the introduction of citrus fruit and pineapple by the Spanish.
  • Western Mexico – West of Mexico City are the states of Michoacán, Jalisco and Colima, as well as the Pacific coast. The cuisine of Michoacan is based on the Purepecha culture, which still dominates most of the state. The area has a large network of rivers and lakes providing fish. Its use of corn is perhaps the most varied. While atole is drunk in most parts of Mexico, it is made with more different flavours in Michoacán, including blackberry, cascabel chilli and more. Tamales come in different shapes, wrapped in corn husks. These include those folded into polyhedrons called corundas and can vary in name if the filling is different. In the Bajío area, tamales are often served with a meat stew called churipo, which is flavoured with cactus fruit.

United States

See also : American Cuisine

American cuisine is a style of food preparation originating from the United States of America. European colonisation of the Americas yielded the introduction of a number of ingredients and cooking styles to the latter. The various styles continued expanding well in to the 19th and 20th centuries, proportional to the influx of immigrants from many foreign nations; such influx developed a rich diversity in food preparation throughout the country.Native American cuisine includes all food practices of the indigenous peoples of the Americas. Modern-day native peoples retain a rich body of traditional foods, some of which have become iconic of present-day Native American social gatherings.

Regional

  • Cuisine of the Northeastern United States
  • Cuisine of the Midwestern United States – Midwestern cuisine is a regional cuisine of the American Midwest. It draws its culinary roots most significantly from the cuisines of Central, Northern and Eastern Europe, and is influenced by regionally and locally grown foodstuffs and cultural diversity. These dishes, while not all exclusive to the Midwest, are typical of Midwestern foods. Although many foods are shared with other U.S. regions, they often feature uniquely Midwestern preparation styles.
    • Cuisine of Chicago – Chicago is famous for its food – not only as a gourmet dining epicentre, but as the home of several local specialties. For an authentic experience, get a taste of these culinary staples from our Chicago category such as a deep-dish pizza, the classic Chicago-style hot dog and the Italian Beef.
    • Cuisine of Cincinnati
    • Cuisine of Minnesota
    • Cuisine of Wisconsin
  • Cuisine of the Southern United States – The cuisine of the Southern United States is defined as the historical regional culinary form of states generally south of the Mason Dixon Line dividing Pennsylvania from Maryland and Delaware as well as along the Ohio River, and extending west to southern Missouri, Oklahoma and Texas.
    • Cuisine of Alabama –
    • Appalachian Cuisine –
    • Arkansas Cuisine –
    • Cuisine of Atlanta –
    • Cuisine of West Virginia –
    • Cuisine of Florida –
      • Floribbean cuisine
    • Georgian Cuisine –
    • Cuisine of Kentucky
    • Louisiana Cuisine
      • Cajun Cuisine – Cajun cuisine is the style of cooking named for the French-speaking Acadian or “Cajun” immigrants deported by the British from Acadia in Canada to the Acadiana region of Louisiana, USA. It is what could be called a rustic cuisine — locally available ingredients predominate, and preparation is simple. An authentic Cajun meal is usually a three-pot affair, with one pot dedicated to the main dish, one dedicated to steamed rice, special made sausages, or some other seafood dish, and the third containing whatever vegetable is plentiful or available. Ground cayenne and fresh black pepper are used often.
      • Louisiana Creole Cuisine
      • Cuisine of New Orleans – New Orleans is a city for foodies with fine dining and historic cafes all around the city from the bustling French Quarter to the picture-perfect uptown Garden District. The food blends fancy French cuisine with local cooking styles to create distinctive Creole and Cajun dishes that are original to the city. Join us for a tour of the best food and drink in New Orleans.
    • Lowcountry cuisine
    • Maryland Cuisine
    • Cuisine of Mississippi –
    • North Carolina Cuisine –
    • Soul Food
    • South Carolina Cuisine  –
    • Southern Fusion Cuisine –
    • Tennessee Cuisine –
      • Cuisine of Memphis, Tennessee –
    • Southwestern United States Cuisine –
      • Texan Cuisine –
      • Tex-Mex –
      • New Mexican Cuisine –
      • Cuisine of Arizona –
      • Cuisine of California –
      • Cuisine of Colorado –
      • Cuisine of Nevada –
      • Cuisine of Oklahoma –
      • Cuisine of Utah –
  • Cuisine of the Western United States
    • Alaskan Cuisine –
    • Cuisine of California and the distinct California cuisine
    • Cuisine of Hawaii
    • Pacific Northwest cuisine
    • New Mexican cuisine
    • Rocky Mountain cuisine

Ethnic & Religious, Miscellaneous Cuisines

Main article: Caribbean cuisine

Caribbean cuisine is a fusion of African, Amerindian, British, Spanish, French, Dutch, Indian, and Chinese cuisine. These traditions were brought from the many homelands of this region’s population.

By region

  • Anguillan cuisine
  • Antigua and Barbuda cuisine
  • Aruban cuisine
  • Bahamian cuisine
  • Barbadian cuisine
  • Belizean cuisine
  • Bermudian cuisine
  • British Virgin Islands cuisine
  • Cayman Islands cuisine
  • Cuban cuisine
  • Cuisine of Curaçao
  • Dominican cuisine
  • Dominican Republic cuisine
  • Grenadian cuisine
  • Guadeloupe cuisine
  • Guyanese cuisine
  • Guianan cuisine
  • Haitian cuisine
  • Jamaican cuisine
  • Martinican cuisine
  • Montserrat cuisine
  • Puerto Rican cuisine
  • St. Kitts and Nevis cuisine
  • Saint Lucian cuisine
  • Saint Vincent cuisine
  • Surinamese cuisine
  • Trinidad and Tobago cuisine
  • Turks and Caicos cuisine
  • US Virgin Islands cuisine

Central American cuisine

See also: § Latin American cuisine, Maya cuisine, and Agriculture in Mesoamerica

Central American cuisine – some typical foods in Central American cuisine include maize-based dishes, tortillas, tamales, pupusas, various salsas and other condiments, such as guacamole, pico de gallo, mole, chimichurri and pebre.

  • Belizean cuisine is an amalgamation of all the ethnicities in the nation of Belize, and their respective wide variety of foods. Culinary influences include Mayan, Garifuna, Spanish, Creole, Chinese, British, Caribbean, and American. Beans, tortillas, cheese, chicken, rice and seafood are common in the cuisine.
  • Costa Rican cuisine – a common dish is gallo pinto, which is rice and black beans. Tortillas, plantains, fish, beef and chicken are part of the cuisine.
    Casado is a traditional dish comprising meat served with tortillas and side items such as black beans and rice, or gallo pinto.
    Refrescos in Costa Rica refers to cold fruit smoothie beverages made with fruit and milk or water.
  • Salvadoran cuisine consists of food from the Maya, Lenca, and Pipil people. The cuisine is also influenced by Spanish cuisine. Empanadas, tamales and pupusas are widespread, and seafood is common because of San Salvador’s extensive coastline.
  • Guatemalan cuisine was influenced by the Mayan Empire, Spanish rule and the current modernized country. Guatemala has 22 departments (or divisions), each of which has varying food varieties.
  • Honduran cuisine is a fusion of African, Spanish, and indigenous cuisine. Coconut is used in both sweet and savoury dishes. Regional specialties include fried fish, tamales,carne asada and baleadas. Common dishes include grilled meats, tortillas, rice and beans. Seafood is common in the Bay Islands and on the Caribbean coast.
  • Nicaraguan cuisine is a mixture of Spanish, Creole, Garifuna and indigenous cuisines and foods. When the Spaniards first arrived in Nicaragua they found that the Creole people present had incorporated foods available in the area into their cuisine. Despite the blending and incorporation of pre-Columbian and Spanish influenced cuisine, traditional cuisine changes from the Pacific to the Caribbean coast. While the Pacific coast’s main staple revolves around local fruits and corn, the Caribbean coast’s cuisine makes use of seafood and the coconut. Traditional Nicaraguan foods include beans, corn, plantains, peppers and yucca.
  • Panamanian cuisine is both unique and rich. As a land bridge between two continents, Panama possesses an unusual variety of tropical fruits, vegetables and herbs that are used in native cooking. Panamanian cuisine is a unique mix of African, Caribbean, Spanish and Native American cooking and dishes.
See also : South American cuisine See also : Latin American cuisine See also : Cuisine of the Americas

Some of the richest food products of South America come from the middle of the continent, the Amazon basin. For example, the Amazon region provides a plethora of fresh fish and tropical fruits. In countries like Peru there is a strong influence of the Inca empire and their cuisine. Potatoes are frequently grown as a result of this, and also plants such as quinoa. On the Southern tip of South America lies the Pacific Ocean, which provides a large array of seafood. Many plains also are on this continent, which are rich for growing food in abundance. In the Patagonia south of Chile and Argentina, many people produce lamb and venison. King crab is typically caught at the southern end of the continent. Antarctic krill has just recently been discovered and is now another food source. Tuna and tropical fish are caught all around the continent; Easter Island is one place where they are found in abundance. Lobster is also caught in great quantities from Juan Fernández. In Brazil the most traditional dish is the feijoada.

  • Argentine cuisine – Argentinian people have a reputation for their love of eating. Social gatherings are commonly centered around sharing a meal. Invitations to have dinner at home is generally viewed as a symbol of friendship, warmth, and integration. Sunday family dinner is considered the most significant meal of the week, whose highlights often include asado or pasta.
  • Bolivian cuisine – Stems mainly from the combination of Spanish cuisine with traditional native Bolivian ingredients, with later influences from Germans, Italians, Basques, Croats, Russians, and Poles, due to the arrival of immigrants from those countries. The three traditional staples of Bolivian cuisine are corn, potatoes, and beans. These ingredients have been combined with a number of staples brought by the Spanish, such as rice, wheat, and meat, such as beef, pork, and chicken.
  • Brazilian cuisine – Brazilian cooking, while it has many similarities with that of its South American neighbours, is distinct. Stretching from the Amazon in the north, through the fertile plantations of the central coast and on to the southern pampas, the food of Brazil spans a unique mix of cultures and cuisines. The original population contributed popular ingredients like cassava and guaraná. African slaves influenced the cuisine of the coastal states, especially Bahia. And around the country, a Portuguese heritage is reflected in a variety of dishes.
  • Chilean cuisine – Stems mainly from the combination of Spanish cuisine with traditional Chilean ingredients, with later influences from other European cuisines, particularly from Germany, Italy, France and the Middle East. The food tradition and recipes in Chile stand out due to the varieties in flavours and colours. The country’s long coastline and the Chilean peoples’ relationship with the sea adds an immense array of ocean products to the variety of the food in Chile.
  • Colombian cuisine – Includes the cooking traditions and practices of Colombia and its Caribbean shoreline, mountains, jungle, and ranches. Colombian cuisine varies regionally and is influenced by Indigenous, Spanish, African, Arab and some Asian influences. Colombian coffee is well known for its high standards in taste compared to others.
  • Ecuadorian cuisine – Traditionally consists of two dishes, a soup and a rice platter. For the most part, Ecuador is known not only for its bananas, and all the dishes made from them, but for its starch consumption of products like potato, bread, rice, and yuca. Traditionally any of these factors can be found in either the soup or the rice platter that may be served.
  • Paraguayan cuisine – is similar to the cuisines in Uruguay and the Falkland Islands. Cuisine of Paraguay, Uruguay and the Falkland Islands, Guarani and European Influences. Meats, vegetables, manioc, maize and fruits are common in Paraguayan cuisine. Barbecuing is both a cooking technique and often a social event, and are known as Asados.
    • Cuisine of Asunción – Refers to the cuisine and restaurants of the city of Asunción, Paraguay. Compared to most of the Latin American capitals, the city has comparatively few European restaurants and influences in cuisine. However, international (including Italian, Chinese, Mexican and others) and traditional Paraguayan cuisines are available in various restaurants and hotels.
  • Peruvian cuisine – Reflects local cooking practices and ingredients—and, through immigration, influences from Spanish, Chinese, Italian, West African, and Japanese cuisine. Many traditional foods—such as quinoa, kiwicha, chilli peppers, and several roots and tubers have increased in popularity in recent decades, reflecting a revival of interest in native Peruvian foods and culinary techniques.
    • Peruvian-Chinese cuisine (Chifa) – Chifa is culinary tradition based on Chinese Cantonese elements fused with traditional Peruvian ingredients and traditions. Though originating in Peru, the Chifa tradition has spread to neighbouring countries like Ecuador, Chile and Bolivia. Chinese immigrants came to Peru mainly from the southern province of Guangdong and particularly its capital city Guangzhou in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
  • Uruguayan cuisine – Is traditionally based on its European roots, in particular, Mediterranean food from Italy, Spain, Portugal and France, but also from countries such as Germany and Britain, along with African and indigenous mixtures. The national drink is the Grappamiel.
    • Cuisine of Montevideo – Refers to the food cooked and served in the city of Montevideo, Uruguay. The cuisine served in the city is similar to that consumed in the country as a whole with beef being a staple of the diet and found in a range of foods and torta frita, a pan-fried cake. However, given the influx of immigrants and tourists into the capital over the decades and centuries, a range of cultural culinary influences can be found in the city.
  • Venezuelan cuisine – Due to its location in the world, its diversity of industrial resources and the cultural diversity of the Venezuelan people, Venezuelan cuisine often varies greatly from one region to another; however, its cuisine, traditional as well as modern, has strong ties to its European ancestry.

Australia

Refer to Australian Cuisine

Other than by climate and produce availability, Australian cuisine has been influenced by the tastes of settlers to Australia.

New Zealand

Refer to New Zealand Cuisine

New Zealand cuisine is largely based upon local ingredients and seasonal variations. New Zealand is an island nation with a strong agricultural-based economy, and nationally and regionally grown produce and fresh seafood is prominent.

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