The terms below constitute either names for different doughnut types created using local recipes, or for the local language translation of the term for an imported doughnut product:
Argentina – Kreppel, also called Tortas Fritas (fried pastries), is a fried pastry or quick bread that was introduced by German immigrants similar to the Berliner. Facturas are a popular baked doughnut found in every corner bakery. Other names that may be seen in bakeries are “Berlinesas” and Bolas de Fraile (Monk’s Balls)
Armenia – Ponchik is a deep-fried piece of dough shaped into a flattened sphere and filled with confiture or other sweet filling. Tukalik are similar to doughnut holes, and Armenian doughnuts are referred to as Chickies.
Austria – The Austrian doughnut equivalents are called Krapfen and resemble the Berliner. Especially popular during Carnival season (Fasching), they are solid and usually filled with apricot jam (traditional) or vanilla cream (called Vanillekrapfen). They are made from sweet yeast dough fried in fat or oil, usually with a marmalade, jam filling, or chocolate, champagne, custard, mocha filling, or with no filling at all. They are usually topped with icing, icing sugar, or conventional sugar.
Australia – besides traditional ring doughnuts, jam doughnuts are common in most bakeries. Cinnamon or chocolate-topped doughnuts can be found in almost any cafe.
Azores – Filhós, Malasadas.
Belgium – Smoutebollen are similar to Dutch oliebollen but usually do not contain any fruit, except for apple chunks sometimes. They are typical carnival and fair snacks and are dusted with icing sugar.
Bohemia – Obyčejné Vdolky
Bolivia – Buñuelos are a round fry bread.
Brazil – Doughnuts are referred to as Sonho, meaning dream.
Bulgaria – Ponichki, Mekitsas.
Cameroon – Puffpuff
Canada – Canadian doughnuts are usually similar to those in the United States. Other Canadian variants include the Beaver Tail, Crullers, Timbits, Potato flour doughnuts and Newfoundland’s Toutin. Maple bars- bar doughnuts with maple syrup flavoured icing are also occasionally found in the US, especially in neighbouring states, such as Ohio, Wisconsin and Michigan.
Chile – Round fried filled doughnuts without holes are popular in Chile because of the large German community there and is called a Berlin (plural Berlines). They may be filled with jam or with manjar, the Chilean version of dulce de leche.
China – Although Chinese cuisine now features doughnut-type pastries borrowed from American and European kitchens, traditional pastries are somewhat different, often featuring thin, leathery dough surrounding plentiful mildly sweet or savoury filling. Cantonese cuisine features an oval shaped pastry called Ngàuhleiso-u (“Ox-tongue pastry” due to its tongue-like shape). A similar food is called saa1 jung1, fried round dough balls with sugar sprinkled on top. A Shanghai dessert 高力豆沙 is a variant of this with oilier dough (originally made with egg white) and filled with red bean paste. Another variant uses thickened, lightly sweetened black sesame paste for filling and is sprinkled with sesame seeds. Other types are Tikoy, Zha Gao, Jin Doi, Chien Doi, Zhá Miàn Qua-n. A salty variation are deep-fried doughnut sticks that are often quite oily, hence their name, in Mandarin, Yóutiáo (lit. “oil strips”); in Cantonese, this doughnut-style pastry is called Yàuhjagwái; it is served with congee, a traditional rice porridge.
Colombia – Buñuelos, Roscas
Croatia – Trijesce, Primoštenske fritule, Fritule, Istarski cukarini, Kroštule, Krafne, Krofna, Krafna, or “Pokladnice” (“poklade” meaning Carnival)
Czech Republic – Koblihyor Vdolky (without a hole) are usually filled with jam and dusted with sugar. Vdolky are not as high as Koblihy. Bavorský vdolek or Bavorský koblih (Bavarian doughnut) also often baked in Czech has jam and thick sour cream on top.
Denmark – The “Berliner” without a hole is available in bakeries across the country and are called Berliner like in Germany. Another variant without the filling is Aebleskiver, normally eaten with icing sugar and jam on the side.
Finland – Munkki (without a hole), Berliininmunkki / Piispanmunkki (no hole, sugar coating), Donitsi (with a hole), Munkkirinkilä.
France – Beignets are sometimes described as a French doughnut, and are popular in New Orleans, Louisiana.
Georgia – Punchula
Germany – Bismark, Berliner (Berliner Pfannkuchen), is a predominantly German and Central European doughnut made from sweet yeast dough fried in fat or oil, without a hole. The doughnuts are filled with jams, such as apricot, plum butter or rose hip jam. Varieties and other names are Obst Krapfen, Fastnachts, Faschingskrapfen, Nougatkrapfen, Vanillekrapfen, Kreppel, Powidlkrapfen, Apfelkrapfen, Eierkuchen.
Ghana – Bofrot
Greece – Svingi, Thiples, Loukoumades, Loukoumathes. A doughnut-like snack called Loukoumas comes in two types, a crispy one shaped like the number 8, and a larger, softer one shaped like the number 0.
Hawaii – A popular doughnut in Hawaii is the Malasada and Punahou Malasadas. They were brought to the Hawaiian Islands by early Portuguese settlers and are a variation on Portugal’s filhós. They are small eggy balls of yeast dough deep fried and coated in sugar.
Hungary – Fánk, a round doughnut or bismark doughnuts (without a hole) dusted with sugar, and Lángos, a flat fried bread made of yeast dough, served with sour cream and toppings like cheese, ham or chopped onions.
Iceland – Kleinuhringir, Kleinur, Berlínarbollur and Ástarpungar. Ástarpungar traditionally contain raisins.
India – Vadai are savoury rings of dough made from lentils that are popular in Tamil cuisine They are not necessarily fried. Varieties of sweet doughnut-like pastries includes badushah or balushahi . They are made like an old-fashioned doughnut by frying the dough in oil, and are soaked in sugar syrup and sometimes flavoured with spices. Badushah does not have the centre hole. Another sweet in India is “imarti”, known elsewhere as jalebi. Adhirasam are a Tamil sweet doughnut with a long history. Another similar dessert is gulab jamun – a ball-shaped pastry from buffalo-milk-based quick dough that is fried and floated in rose-water and cardamon flavoured sweet syrup.
Indonesia – Donat Kentang is known as an Indonesian style fried mashed potato doughnut; a fritter that comes in ring shape and is made from combination of flour and mashed potatoes, coated in powder sugar or icing sugar.
Iran – Zooloobiya, a fritter that comes in various shapes and sizes and coated in a sticky-sweet syrup.
Ireland – Gravy rings.
Israel – Sufganiyah (plural Sufganyot), like the German Berliner, jelly doughnuts, Boston cream doughnut, the Polish pączki , or the Russian ponchik, are fried, pierced and injected with jelly or custard, and then topped with icing sugar or frosting. They have become a traditional Hanukkah food in recent decades. Traditionally they are filled with red jelly and topped with sugar icing. However, many other varieties exist, the more expensive ones being filled with dulce de leche.
Italy – Struffoli, Pignolata,Guanti, (Assisi) Bastoncello, (Calabria) Scaddateddi, Zeppole Spignesi, Chiacchiere, Lattughe (this may not be classifiable as doughnut, but it is fried pastry) Cenci, Donzelle, Frappe, Sfrappole, Bugie, Crostoli, Frittelle, Ciambelli (Cocullo, Abruzzi) and Bomboloni.
Japan – Dango, Sata-andagi (Okinawa), Taiyaki (fish-shaped). In Japan, An-doughnut (lit. “bean jam doughnut”) is widely available and is similar to Germany’s Berliner, except it contains red bean paste.
Jersey – (Channel Islands) Jersey Wonders (Mèrvelles).
Kazakhstan – Baursaki.
Kenya – Mandazi are sweet, triangular shaped breakfast delicacy enjoyed with a coconut side dish (baazi), made out of flour and sugar, originally from Mombasa.
Korea – Garakjibbang.
Lebanon – Awami.
Libya – Sfenz
Lithuania – Spurgos are doughnuts with jam filling and sugar coating. There is also a local variety of doughnuts made from cottage cheese dough (“Varškės spurgos”) which contains no filling.
Madagascar – Mofo Boule.
Malaysia – Kuih Keria, Kuih Gelang, Kuih Tayar.
Mexico – Buñuelo, Churro, Sopapilla. The Mexican Donas are very similar to doughnuts including in the name; the dona is a fried-dough pastry-based snack, commonly coated with cinnamon sugar or granulated sugar, or dipped in chocolate.
Moldova – Schlitzküchla (from German cuisine)
Morocco – Sfenj
Nepal – Sel roti
Netherlands – Oliebollen is a traditional Dutch food eaten on New Year’s Eve and at fairs. They are like a round doughnut without a hole (similar to trademarked plain “doughnut holes” in the US). Oliebollen is a traditional treat that are usually sold along with Appelflappen (apple fritters) at supermarkets or from specially set up street carts during the week after Christmas.
New Zealand – Cream-filled doughnut.
Nigeria – Puffpuff , Chin chin.
Norway – Hjorte Bakkels, Futimonbuckles, Fattigmann Bakkels, Smultring.
Panama – Hojaldras Panameñas
Paraguay – Bollos.
Peru – Dona.
Philippines – Local varieties of Donuts (donat) are sold by peddlers and street vendors throughout the Philippines. Local varieties are usually made of plain well-mead dough, deep-fried in refined coconut oil and sprinkled with refined sugar. Bitso-bitso (or Bicho-bicho) is doughnut-like local pastry. The dough is made of one long piece that doubles on itself, and is twisted, deep-fried and coated with coarse-grained sugar. It sometimes may come with a cheese filling. Local doughnuts have a chewier texture than Western ones. In the Philippines, doughnuts are a popular merienda or mid-day snack. Some doughnuts here are sprinkled with cocoa powder.
Poland – Pączki, round jam-filled doughnuts. Pączki have been known in Poland at least since the Middle Ages. Jędrzej Kitowicz wrote that during the reign of the August III under influence of French cooks who came to Poland at that time, pączki dough baked in Poland has been improved, so that pączki became lighter, spongier, and more resilient.
Portugal – Filhós, Malasadas.
Puerto Rico – Quesitos (filled with sweet cheese).
Romania – Gogoşi
Russia – Ponchik, Russian “ponchiki” , and “pyshki” , as well as Ukrainian “pampushky”, are the equivalent designations for the Polish pa;czki, but could be filled with cream or jam, or left plain. More traditional are deep-fried “pirozhki” and Ukrainian that likely originated from similar pastries of the Turkic tribes in the Golden Horde that invaded in 1237. “Pirozhki” is a generic term given to filled pastries with yeast dough and fruit, dairy (cheese or custard) or savoury filling, that could be baked pan fried or deep-fried in oil.
Sardinia – Zippulas.
Scotland – Doughrings is an alternative term for ring doughnuts. Square fudge doughnuts are also a tradition.
Serbia – Doughnuts similar to the Berliner are also prepared in the Northern Balkans, particularly in Croatia (,Ustipci, Krofnepokladnice or Krafne) and Serbia’s Vojvodina province. They are called Krofna, a name derived from the Austrian Krapfen.
Sicily – Pignolatti, Sfingi, Cuddureddi.
South Africa – Koeksister, Oliebolle met Suurmelk (“Sourmilk doughnuts”). Another variation is the Vetkoek, dough deep fried in oil, served with mince, syrup, honey or jam.
South Korea – Many bakeries in South Korea offer doughnuts either filled with or made entirely from the Korean traditional rice dessert Tteok. These come in a variety of colours, though they are normally in green, pink, or white. They are often filled with a sweet red bean paste or sesame seeds.
Spain – Churros, Porras, Chimeneas, Orange Roscos, Wine Roscos, Roscos de anis, Rosquillas de Ledesma, buñuelos, bimuelos, birmuelos, bermuelos, burmuelos, bunyols, Rosquillas listas de san Isidro, rosquito tonto, rosquilla tonta.
Sweden – Munk (doughnut), klenät, flottyrring.
Switzerland – Ringli, Basler Krapfen, Chüechli, Öhrli.
Syria – Zabeh.
Tunisia – Ftair, Yo-yos, Bambalouni.
Turkey – Hanim Göbeği, Tulumba tatlisi, Izmir Lokmasi
UK – Similar to North American doughnuts, but traditionally topped with granulated sugar rather than powdered sugar or glaze. In some parts of Scotland, ring doughnuts are referred to as Doughrings, with the doughnut moniker being reserved exclusively for the nut-shaped variety. Glazed, twisted rope-shaped doughnuts are known as “Yum-yums”. It is also possible to buy fudge doughnuts in certain regions of Scotland. In some parts of Northern Ireland, ring doughnuts are referred to as “gravy rings” due to their being cooked in oil, itself colloquially known as “gravy”.
Ukraine – Pampushky (sweet filling or garlic flavoured)
United States of America – In the US, doughnuts exist in cake, raised and piped varieties and in many different shapes, including Crullers (twisted piped bars), Vanities, Comfits, Fritters (irregularly shaped “dropped” doughnuts), Long Johns (bars with or without filling), Boston cream doughnuts, Potato doughnuts, Sour cream doughnuts, Cider doughnuts, Simball, Olicook, Olykoecks, Bear claws (although many varieties are fruit-filled cake rather than doughnut), Elephant Ears, Yum yums, Fasnachts, Frying Saucers, Bear sign (cowboy slang for ring doughnuts), Brown Bobby (a significant contingent in the ‘doughnut shape debate’ because this variety is a ‘triangular toroid’). Native Americans have been known to lay claim to the invention of the doughnut with Johnnycakes, though many varieties of Johnnycake are neither sweet nor doughnut-shaped. Bar-shaped doughnuts are known as “bars” or Long Johns, particularly maple bars with maple-flavoured icing that sometimes incorporate caramelised bacon.
Yemen – Zalabiya